The Effectiveness of Project Based Learning on Students' Creative Thinking Skills in English Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis Study

Upris Yastanti, Lia Nurmalia, Anggraini Anggraini, Faisal Faisal, Tomi Apra Santosa


This study aims to determine the effect of the overall size of Project-based Learning research on students' creative thinking ability in English language learning. The study analyzed 9 effect measures accessed through Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Wiley and ERIC from 2015 to 2023. The meta-analysis involved 340 students. Analyze data with the help of JSAP applications. The calculation of the effect size of each study used a 95% confidence level. The results showed that the effect size obtained through the random effects model was 1,287 (High).  This finding explains that the application of model project-based learning is effective in improving students' creative thinking skills in learning English.  This meta-analysis illustrates how much influence the project-based learning model has on students' creative thinking skills in English learning.


Blended Learning; Size Effect; English; Meta-analysis

Full Text:



Abdul Rahman, Ilwandri, Tomi Apra Santosa3, Revi Gina Gunawan, Yayat Suharyat, Ringgo Putra6, A. S. (2023). Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning Model in Science Learning: A Meta-Analysis Study. WINNER: Sports Journal, 8(2), 713–726.

Alotaibi, M. G. (2020). The Effect of Project-Based Learning Model on Persuasive Writing Skills of Saudi EFL Secondary School Students. English Language Teaching, 13(7), 19–26.

Arce, M. E., Míguez-tabarés, J. L., Granada, E., Míguez, C., &; Cacabelos, A. (2014). PROJECT-BASED LEARNING: APPLICATION TO A RESEARCH MASTER SUBJECT OF THERMAL ENGINEERING. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 3(3), 132–138.

Asfihana, R. (2022). Students ' English Learning Experiences on Virtual Project -Based Learning Instruction. International Journal of Language Education, 6(2), 196–209.

Astri, H., Sinurat, Y., &; Muhammad, D. (2022). The Implementation of Integrated Project-Based Learning Science Technology Engineering Mathematics on Creative Thinking Skills and Student Cognitive Learning Outcomes in Dynamic Fluid. JPPPF (Journal of Research and Development of Physics Education, 8(1), 83–94.

Astuti, N., Efendi, U., &; Haya, F. F. (2022). The Impact of Project Based Learning Model on Creative Thinking Ability of Forth Grade Students. International Journal of Elementary Education, 6(3), 440–445.

Ayaz, M. F. (2015). Proje Tabanlı Öğrenme Yaklaşımının Türkiye’deki Öğrencilerin Fen Derslerindeki Akademik Başarılarına Etkisi: Bir Meta-Analiz Çalışması. Eğitim ve Bilim, 40(178), 255–283.

Azmin, N. H. (2015). Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study. International Education Studies, 9(1), 91.

Badawi1*, Sumarno 2, Julham Hukom3, Agung Prihatmojo4, Abdul Manaf 5 Indah Suciati6, A. R. (2023). Integration of Blended Learning and Project-Based Learning (BPjBL) on Achievement of Students' learning goals: A Meta-analysis study. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 1(4), 4–11.

Bakkali, A. El. (2022). The Moroccan Bachelor New Reform: the Incorporation of Soft Skills through Project-Based Learning. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Proceedings of 2nd MEC TESOL Conference 2020, March 2021, 3–16.

Balemen, N. (2018). THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING ON SCIENCE EDUCATION: A META-ANALYSIS SEARCH. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 5(4), 849–865.

Borenstein, M., & Hedges, L. V. (2009). Introduction to Meta-Analysis Introduction.

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V, Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V, &; Higgins, J. P. T. (2010). A basic introduction to fixed and random effects models for meta-analysis A basic introduction to fixed-effect and random-effects models for meta-analysis. Res. Syn. Meth, 1, 97–111.


Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Second Edition. LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., Lecturer, P., Morrison, K., & Lecturer, S. (2007). Research Methods in Education. Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor &; Francis Group, an informa business.

Goyal, M., Gupta, C., &; Gupta, V. (2022). Heliyon A meta-analysis approach to measure the impact of project-based learning outcome with program attainment on student learning using fuzzy inference systems. Heliyon, 8(December 2021), e10248.

Guo, P., Saab, N., Post, L. S., &; Admiraal, W. (2020). A review of project-based learning in higher education: Student outcomes and measures. International Journal of Educational Research, 102(April), 101586.

Guven, D., Gazelci, R. S., Gulay, H., Ogelman, G., &; Examining, H. (2022). Examining the Relationships between the Burnout Levels and Creative Thinking Levels of Special Education Teachers To cite this article: Examining the Relationships between the Burnout Levels and Creative Thinking Levels of Special Education Teachers. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 9(3), 509–518.

Handayani, S. A., Rahayu, Y. S., Budi, H. S., &; Tirta, I. M. (2018). Enhancing senior high school students' creative thinking skills using project-based e-learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1097, 1–7.

Ichsan, Tomi Apra Santosa, Ilwandri, Aulia Sofianora, U. Y. (2022). The Effectiveness of CIPP Model Evaluation in Science Learning in Indonesia: Meta-Analysis. Journal of Education and Counseling, 5(2), 1349–1358.

Ichsan, Yayat Suharyat, Tomi Apra Santosa, E. (2023). The Effectiveness of STEM-Based Learning in Teaching 21 st Century Skills in Generation Z Student in Science Learning: A. Journal of Science Education Research, 9(1), 150–166.

Jermsittiparsert, K., Menacho-vargas, I., Supo-condori, F., Yaneth, Y., Centellas, T., Ivanova, O. N., State, A., Planning, H. E., &; Board, C. (2021). Cypriot Journal of Educational Cooperative strategies and listening comprehension: The cases of Jigsaw and Missing information techniques. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 16(3), 1257–1268.

Khoiri, N., Ristanto, S., &; Kurniawan, A. F. (2023). Indonesian Journal of Science Education PROJECT-BASED LEARNING VIA TRADITIONAL GAME IN PHYSICS LEARNING: ITS IMPACT ON CRITICAL THINKING, CREATIVE THINKING, AND COLLABORATIVE SKILLS. Indonesian Journal of Science Education, 12(2), 286–292.

Kristanto, E. P. M. & 2Yosep D. (2023). Ntegrating STEAM Education and Computational Thinking: Analysis of Students' Critical and Creative Thinking Skills in an Innovative Teaching and Learning. Southeast Asia Mathematics Education Journal Volume, 13(1), 1–18.

Lu, Q. (2021). A New Project-Based Learning in English Writing State of the Art. IJET, 16(5), 214–227.

Macleod, M., &; Veen, J. T. Van Der. (2020). Scaffolding interdisciplinary project-based learning: a case study. European Journal of Engineering Education, 45(3), 363–377.

Mihardi, S., Harahap, M. B., &; Sani, R. A. (2013). The Effect of Project Based Learning Model with KWL Worksheet on Student Creative Thinking Process in Physics Problems. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 4(18), 93–107.

Mursid, R., Saragih, A. H., &; Hartono, R. (2022). The Effect of the Blended Project-based Learning Model and Creative Thinking Ability on Engineering Students' Learning Outcomes. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 10(1), 218–235.

Muzana, S. R., Wilujeng, I., Yanto, B. E., &; Mustamin, A. A. (2021). E-STEM project-based learning in teaching science to increase ICT literacy and problem solving. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 10(4), 1386–1394.

Nasir, M., &; Jayanti, M. I. (2021). The influence of the Project Based Learning model on the creative thinking ability of grade VIII students of SMP Negeri 2 Sanggar. Journal of Social Sciences and Education (JISIP), 5(4), 1183–1187.

Ningsih, S. R., Ahman, E., &; Riswanto, A. (2020). Effectiveness of Using the Project-Based Learning Model in Improving Creative-Thinking Ability. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(4), 1628–1635.

Niswara, R., Muhajir, M., &; Untari, M. F. A. (2019). The effect of the project-based learning model on high order thinking skills. Pulpit PGSD Undiksha, 7(2), 85–90.

Nogerbek, A., &; Kh, M. (2022). Cypriot Journal of Educational Methods of forming the creative thinking and learning technology competencies of future biology teachers. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 17(7), 2349–2360.

Nurtamam, M. E., Santosa, T. A., Aprilisia, S., Rahman, A., &; Suharyat, Y. (2023). Meta-analysis: The Effectiveness of Iot-Based Flipped Learning to Improve Students' Problem Solving Abilities. Edumaspul: Journal of Education, 7(1), 1491–1501.

Occe Luciana1*, Tomi Apra Santosa2, Agus Rofi'i3, Taqiyuddin4, B. N. (2023). Meta-analysis: The effect of problem-based learning on students' critical thinking skills. Edumaspul: Journal of Education, 7(2), 2058–2068.

Putra, M., Rahman, A., Suhayat, Y., Santosa, T. A., &; Putra, R. (2023). The Effect of STEM-Based REACT Model on Students' Critical Thinking Skills: A Meta-Analysis Study. LITERACY: International Scientific Journals of Social, Education and Humanities, 2(1), 207–217.

Rahayu, R., &; Indriyanti, D. R. (2023). An Ethnosains Based Project Based Learning Model with Flipped Classroom on Creative Thinking Skills. Journal of Science Education Research, 9(8), 348–355.

Rahman, A., Santosa, T. A., Sofianora, A., Oktavianti, F., &; Alawiyah, R. (2023). Systematic Literature Review: TPACK-Integrated Design Thinking in Education. International Journal of Education and Literature (IJEL), 2(1), 65–77.

Razak, A., Santosa, T. A., Lufri, &; Zulyusri. (2021). Meta-Analysis: The Effect of HOTS (Higher Order Thinking Skill) on Science Literacy Ability and Student Lesson Study on Ecological and Environmental Materials during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Bioedusiana: Journal of Biology Education, 6(1), 79–87.

Rio, T. G., &; Rodriguez, J. (2022). Education for Chemical Engineers Design and assessment of a project-based learning in a laboratory for integrating knowledge and improving engineering design skills. Education for Chemical Engineers, 40(February), 17–28.

Rofik et al. (2022). The Effect of Collaborative Problem Solving &; Collaborative Project-Based Learning Models to Improve the Project Competences of Pre-Service Teachers. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(3), 130–143.

Santhosh, M., Farooqi, H., Ammar, M., Siby, N., Bhadra, J., &; Thani, N. J. Al. (2023). A Meta Analysis to Gauge the Effectiveness of STEM Informal Project Based Learning: Investigating the Potential Moderator Variables. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 32(5), 671–685.

Setiawan et al. (2022). Blended Learning and Student Mathematics Ability in Indonesia: A Meta- Analysis Study. International Journal of Instruction, 15(2), 905–916.

Shin, M. (2018). Effects of Project-based Learning on Students' Motivation and Self-efficacy. English Teaching, 73(1), 95–114.

Simanjuntak, M. P. (2021). Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning Combined with Computer Simulation on Students ' Problem-Solving and Creative Thinking Skills. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 519–534.

Sudjimat, D. A. (2021). Implementation of Project-Based Learning Model and Workforce Character Development for the 21st Century in Vocational High School. International Journal of Instruction, 14(1), 181–198.

Suharyat, Y., Ichsan, Satria, E., Santosa, T. A., &; Amalia, K. N. (2022). Meta-analysis of the application of problem-based learning models to improve students' 21st century skills in science learning. Journal of Education and Counseling, 4(5), 5081–5088.

Suharyat, Y., Santosa, T. A., Yulianti, S., &; Amalia, K. N. (2022). International Journal of Education and Literature (IGEL) Literature Review: TPACK-Based Science Learning in Supporting Teacher Quality in Indonesia. 2014–2020.

Sumarni, W., &; Kadarwati, S. (2020). Ethno-stem project-based learning: Its impact to critical and creative thinking skills. Indonesian Journal of Science Education, 9(1), 11–21.

Suntonrapot Damrongpanit&, T. I. N. A. (2022). Meta-Analysis of Instructional Management Model for Students' Creative Thinking Development: An Application of Propensity Score Matching. 11(4), 2429–2444.

Suparman, Juandi, D., &; Tamur, M. (2021). Review of problem-based learning trends in 2010-2020: A meta-analysis study of the effect of problem-based learning in enhancing mathematical problem-solving skills of Indonesian students. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1722(1).

Supratman et al. (2021). The Effect Size of Different Learning on Critical and Creative Thinking Skills of Biology Students. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 187–206.

Suryono, W., Haryanto, B. B., Santosa, T. A., Suharyat, Y., &; Sappaile, B. I. (2023). The Effect of The Blended Learning Model on Student Critical Thinking Skill: Meta-analysis. Edumaspul - Journal of Education, 7(1), 1386–1397.

S Waliyati 12, Dafik12, S. (2019). The analysis of project-based learning implementation to improve students creative thinking skill in solving the problem of tiles coloring combination The analysis of project based learning implementation to improve students creative thinking skill in sol. IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series, 1211, 1–17.

Syafrial et al. (2022). Trend Creative Thinking Perception of Students in Learning Natural Science: Gender and Domicile Perspective. International Journal of Instruction, 15(1), 701–716.

Thiel, B., &; Marx, A. (2019). The Influence of Agriscience Research SAEs on Perceived Self-efficacy of 21st Century Skill Attainment. Journal of Agricultural Education, 60(01), 80–95.

Tok, E. (2022). Pre-Service Preschool Teachers' Metacognitive Awareness and Creative Thinking Domains. International Journal of Education OPEN, 2006, 71–78.

Tomi Apra Santosa*, Abdul Razak, Azwir Anhar, R. S. (2021). The Effectiveness of the Blended Learning Model on Student Learning Outcomes in Zoology Courses in the Covid-19 Era. BIODIK: Scientific Journal of Biology Education, 7(1), 77–83.

Umar, M., &; Ko, I. (2022). E-Learning: Direct Effect of Student Learning Effectiveness and Engagement through Project-Based Learning, Team Cohesion, and Flipped Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability, 14(1724), 1–20.

Ummah, S. K., In, A., &; Azmi, R. D. (2019). CREATING MANIPULATIVES: IMPROVING STUDENTS' CREATIVITY THROUGH PROJECT-BASED LEARNING. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(1), 93–102.

Wanglang, C., &; Chatwattana, P. (2023). The Project-Based Learning Model Using Gamification to Enhance 21st Century Learners in Thailand. Journal of Education and Learning, 12(2), 99–105.

Wang, S. (2022). Critical Thinking Development Through Project-Based Learning. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 13(5), 1007–1013.

Wardani, D. S., Fauzi, M. R., Zafira, R., &; Kurniawati, D. (2020). Creating Props: Improving Writing Skills of Teaching Materials of Elementary Teacher Education Students through Project-Based Learning Model. Elementary School Pulpit, 7(2), 216–234.

Wayan Santyasa, I., Agustini, K., &; Eka Pratiwi, N. W. (2021). Project based e-learning and academic procrastination of students in learning chemistry. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 909–928.

Winarto, W., Cahyono, E., Sumarni, W., Sulhadi, S., Wahyuni, S., &; Sarwi, S. (2022). Journal of Technology and Science Education PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' CREATIVE THINKING. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 12(2), 327–344.

Yamin, Y., Permanasari, A., Redjeki, S., &; Sopandi, W. (2020). PROJECT BASED LEARNING TO ENHANCE CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS OF THE NON-SCIENCE STUDENTS. JHSS (Journal of Humanities and Social Studies), 04(02), 107–111.

Yunita, Y., Juandi, D., Nurhidayah, I. J., Wibowo, F. C., Astra, I. M., Diana, N., &; Sukma, Y. (2021). Impact of Project Based Learning on Creative Thinking Skills and Student Learning Outcomes Impact of Project Based Learning on Creative Thinking Skills and Student Learning Outcomes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1940, 1–9.

Yustina*1 , W. Syafii2, R. V. (2020). Indonesian Journal of Science Education THE EFFECTS OF BLENDED LEARNING AND PROJECT-BASED LEARNING ON PRE-SERVICE BIOLOGY TEACHERS' CREATIVE THINKING THROUGH ONLINE LEARNING. Indonesian Journal of Science Education, 9(3), 408–420.

Joseph, F. A. (2023). International Journal of Educational Methodology Meta-Analysis: The Influence of Local Wisdom-Based Learning Media on the Character of Students in Indonesia. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 9(1), 237–247.


Zulkifli, Zulkifli, Agus Supriyadi, Erwinsyah Satria, &; Tomi Apra Santosa. (2022). Meta-analysis: The Effectiveness of the Integrated STEM Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge Learning Model on the 21st Century Skills of High School Students in the Science Department. Psychology, Evaluation, and Technology in Educational Research, 1(2), 68–76. /10.55606/ijel.v1i2.32.

Zulyusri, Tomi Apra Santosa, Festiyed, Yerimadesi1, Yohandri, Abdul Razak, S. (2023). Effectiveness of STEM Learning Based on Design Thiking in Improving Critical Thinking Skills in Science Learning: A. Journal of Science Education Research, 9(6), 112–119.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.