Reformed Theology and Church Reformation Always Happening and Will Never End

Stevri P.N.Indra Lumintang, Muner Daliman


The study aimed to declare several philosophical, theological, biblical and historical arguments regarding reformed theology and church reformation that is always happening and will never end. The author uses a qualitative approach with a content analysis method to achieve this purpose. Content analysis is a research technique to make conclusions based on text or content analysis in writing and systematically. Based on this analysis method, it was found that reformed theology and church reformation are two things that cannot be separated as ideas, agenda and work of God. God is unchanging and sovereign, so only He spells it out through His reformation tools. Therefore, reformed theology and church reformation always occur in His time and will never end. This goal is significant to awaken and dynamize theologians and church leaders who are called to be used as tools of church reformation through reformed theology in the 21st century.


Reformed; Reformation; Theology; Church; Content Analysis

Full Text:



Allison, G., & Christopher, A. S. (2016). The Unfinisfed Reformation: What Unites and Divides Catholics and Protestants After 500 Years. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing.

Arnold, J. L. (1999). “The Cause and Results of the Reformation,” In Magazine Online, Volume 1, Number 2.

Atkinson J. (1988). “Reformation”, In New Dictionary Theology, edited by Sinclair B. Ferguson. Downers Grove, Illionois: Inter-Varsity Press.

Anderson, N. T., & Elmer, L.T. (1997). Rivers of Revival. Ventura, California: Regal

Baiton, R. H. (1965). The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston: Beacon Press

Barna, G. (1990). The Frog in the Kettle. Ventura, CA: Regel

Barna, G. (2010). Marketing the Church. Colorado: NavPress

Batlajery, A. M.L., & van den End, Th. (2016). Ecclesia Reformata Semper Reformanda. Jakarta: BPH Gunung Mulia

Berkhof, H., & Enklaar, I.H. (1993). Sejarah Gereja. Jakarta: PTK Gunung Mulia

Bornkamm, H. (1965). The Heart of Reformation Faith: The Fundamental Axioms of Evangelical Belief. Michigan: Harper & Row.

Kenneth, A. (2003). 100 Peristiwa Peting Dalam Sejarah Kristen. Jakarta: Gunung Mulia

Rupen, D. (2022). “God’s Work of Transformation in the World: Defining Transformation in the Invitational Mission of God,” In Lausanne Global Analysis.;

van den en, Th (2014). Ecclesia Reformata Semper Reformanda: Dua Belas Tulisan mengenai Calvin dan Calvinisme, diedit oleh Agustinus M.L., Batlajery. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia.

Engelsma, D. J. (2005). The Reformed Wordview on Behalf of Godly Culture. Grandville: PRC Evangelism Committees.

Elo, S., Kaariainen, M., Kanste, K., Pölkki, T., Utriainen, K., Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 1-10.

George, T. (1988). Theology of the Reformers. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press

Gonzalez, J. L. (1984). The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: The Reformation to the Present Day. San Francisco: Harper and Row Publishers, 1984

Gritsch, E. W. (2010). A History of Lutheranism (second edition). Minneapolis: Fortress Press

Hart D.G., & Muether, J.R. (2020. With Reverence and Awe: Returning to the Basics of Reformed Worship. Phillipsburg, New Jersey: P&R Publishing

Hauerwas, S. (2017). “The Reformation is Over. Protestant Won. So Why Are We Still Here?” In The

Hillerbrand, H. J. (1981). The World of the Reformation. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House

Horton, M. (2012). Kekristenan Tanpa Kristus. Surabaya: Momentum

Horton, M. S. (2017). “Is The Reformation Over?” In The Reformation Then and Now. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers, LLC.

Justin, H. (2012). “Two Major Streams of Reformed Theology,” in Explore TGC, Bible and Theology.

Landry, E., & Horton, M.S. (2017). The Reformation Then and Now: 25 Years of Modern Reformation Articles Celebrating 500 Years of the Reformation. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishing

Leithert, P. J. (2013). “The End of Protestantism”, In American’s Most Influential Journal of Religions and Public Life.;

Leithart, P. J. (2016). The End of Protestantism: Pursuing Unity in a Fragmented Church. Grand Rapids: Brazos Press

Lumintang, S. I. (2004). Theologia Abu-Abu: Pluralisme Agama. Malang: Penerbit Gandum Mas.

Lumintang, S. I. (2006). Theologia dan Misiologia Reformed: Menuju Kepada Pemikiran Reformed dan Menjawab Keberatan. Batu: Departemen Litaratur PPII.

Lumintang, S. I., & Lumintang, D.A. (2016). Theologia Penelitian dan Penelitian Theologis: Science-Ascience Serta Metodologinya. Jakarta: Geneva Insani Indonesia.

Lumintang, S. I. (2017). Theologia Reformasi Gereja Abad XXI: Gereja Menjadi Serupa Dunia. Jakarta: Geneva Insani Indonesia.

Loucks, M. (n.d). Reading in Reformed Theology (unpublished). Los Angeles: International

Jovanovic, M. (2007). The Restoration Movement of the Churches of Christ. Kairos – Evangelical Journal of Theology, 1(1), 11-22.

Kelly, D. F. (2001). Munculnya Kemerdekaan di Dunia Modern: Pengaruh Calvin terhadap Lima Pemerintahan dari Abad XVI-Abad XVII (terj.). Surabaya: Penerbit Momentum

Kistemaker, S. J. (2004). New Testament Commentary: Revelation. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Reliability in Content Analysis: Some Common Misconception and Recommendations. Human Communication Research, 30, 411–433: https;//

Kristiyanto, E. (2002). Gagasan yang Menjadi Peristiwa: Skets, i30a Sejarah Gereja Abad I-XV. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius

Kwan, S. H. (2018). Gospel That Must Be Restored, Enjoy and Deliver to the 237 Nations. Daegu: Mission First Church

MacArthur, J. (2010). Ashamed of the Gospel: When the Church Becomes Like the World. Wheaton, Illinois: Crossway

McGrath, A. E. (2002). Sejarah pemikiran Reformasi. Jakarta: PT Gunung Mulia

McKim, D. K. (1988). Theological Turning Points: Major Issues in Christian Thought. Louisville, Kentucky: John Knox Press

McGrath, A. E. (2005). Iustitia Dei: A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification (Third Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University

Metzger, W. (2005). Tell The Truth: The Whole Gospel to the Whole Person by Whole People. Surabaya: Penerbit Momentum

Nelson Jr. C., & Woods, R.H. (2011). “Content Analysis” in, The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in the Study of Religion, Edited by Michael Stausberg and Steven Engler. London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group

Noll, M. A. (2005). Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic

Noll, M. A., & Nystrom, C. (2008). Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism. Grand Rapids: Baker Book Academic

Olson, R. E. (1999). The Story of Christian Theology: Twenty Century of Tradition and Reform. Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic

Runia, K. (1968). Reformation Today. London: Banner of Truth Trust

Satelmajer, N. (2021). The End of the Reformation Is Coming. Luther Started Something We Still Talk about Today. Why? In Magazine Article.

Schmidt, Albert-Marie. (1960). Calvin and the Calvinistic Tradition. New York: Harper-Brothers

Shedd, W. G.T. (1978). A History of Christian Doctrine. USA: Klock and Klock

Sider, R. J. (2007). The Scandal of the Evangelical Concience: Mengapa Hidup Orang-Orang Kristen Serupa Dunia? Surabaya: Literatur Perkantas

Snyder, H. (2006). “Pandangan Pembaharuan”, Evaluating the Church Growth Movement, diedit oleh Gary L. McIntosh. Malang: Penerbit Gandum Mas

Sproul R.C. (1995). New Geneva Study Bible: Bringing the Light of the Reformation to Scripture. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers

Stotts, J. L. (1992). “Church”, Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press

Tinder, D. (1978). “Evangelicalism”, In The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, edited by J.D. Douglas. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House

Tong, J. (1998). Systematic Theology and Pastoral Ministry. Los Angeles: International Theological Seminary

van Engen, C. (2006). “Tanggapan Pihak Sentris” Evaluating the Church Growth Movement, diedit oleh Gary L. McIntosh. Malang: Penerbit Gandum Mas

Warfield, B. B. (2000). Calvin and Calvinism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker

White, J. E. (2003). Rethinking the Church. Mitra Pustaka

Wendel, F. (2002). Calvin: Origins and Development of His Religious Thought. Grand Rapids: Baker Books

Zylstra, S. E. (2017). 500 Years After Reformation, Many Protestants Closer to Catholics than Martin Luther.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.