Qur'anic Pagans from Crone's Point of View: Emphasizing on Verses 32-43 of Surah Kahf

Fatemeh Ramyar, Zainab al-Sadat Hosseini


From the perspective of Islamic and Western scholars, the Holy Qur'an is presented as the source of Islamic beliefs, and many Orientalists have studied and written on topics derived from the themes of the Qur'an. Among them, we can mention Patricia Crone, who in the article "Qur'anic pagans and resurrection" has analyzed the principles of monotheism and resurrection as the most important religious foundations in the Qur'an. On the one hand, she believes that the Qur'an has not clearly defined polytheists and infidels, and on the other hand, all polytheists have been addressed in the Qur'an, like the wealthy person in Surah Kahf/32-43, as those who deny the resurrection. The current research has investigated the above-mentioned doubts by descriptive-analytical method. In this regard, the findings of the research on the words "Polytheism" and "Disbelief" show that the Qur'an has explained them according to the context and audience. And the reasons for the polytheism of a wealthy person in Surah Kahf by examining the context and analyzing the verses such as the connection of arrogance and shirk is obtained by suspecting the Resurrection and admitting one's own shirk. The result of the investigation indicates that Crone's analysis about polytheism and their belief in resurrection cannot be compatible with the verses of the Qur’an.


Monotheism of Pagans; Surah Kahf; Crone, Pagans; Resurrection of Pagans

Full Text:



The Holy Qur’an, (1421 AH), translated by Mohammad Hossein Tabataba’i Qom, Islamic Publications Office, 1417 AH.

Bible, (1995 AD), An interpretive translation including the Old Testament and the New Testament of England, International Bible Society.

- Crone, Patricia, (2005 AD), How did the Qur’anic Pagans Make a Living?, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 68, no, 3, PP. 387-399.

- Crone, Patricia, (2016 AD), Pagan Arabs as God-Fearers, Publisher: Oxford University Press. Do l .10. 3/978900731288-0120. Brills My Book.

- Crone, Patricia, (2012 AD), The Qur’anic Mushrikun and Resurrection, BSOAS, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies/Volume 75/Issue 03/October/PP. 445-472.

- Farāhīdī, Khalīl ibn Aḥmad, (1409 AD), Al-ʿAyn, Qom, Hijra.

- Hojjati, Mohammad Ali; Gholami, Abdullah and Heydari Far, Majid, (2011 AD), The Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) from the perspective of Orientalists, Qur’anic Studies of Orientalists, Fall and Winter, Year 6, Number 11, pp. 61-84.

- Ibn Athīr, Abul Ḥasan Ali Ibn Muḥammad, (2006 AD), Al-Kamāl fi al-Tārīkh, 5th edition, Beirut, Dar Sadir.

- Ibn Fāris, Aḥmad, (1404 AH), Mu’jam al-Maqāyis al-Lughah, scholar Abd al-Salam Haroon, Qom, School of Islamic Studies.

- Ibn Manẓūr, Muḥammad ibn Mukarram, (1414 AH), Lisān al-Arab, third edition, Beirut, issued.

- Ibn Maymūn, Mūsā, (1974 AD), Dalā’il al-Ḥā’irīn, research of Hossein Atay, Ankara, Ankara University.

- Ja’farzadeh, Yusuf, Nasrullah Amin Kalibar, (2015 AD), "The Evolution of Belief in the Resurrection in Historical Judaism", Religious Researches, Spring and Summer, Year 4, Number 7, pp. 83-98.

- Jawad, Ali, (1413 AH), The detailed in the history of the Arabs before Islam, Baghdad, Baghdad University.

- Jawādī Āmulī, Abdullah, (2008 AD), Lectures of Tafsīr Tasnīm, Isrāʿ International Foundation for Revelation Sciences.

- Jawādī Āmulī, Abdullah, (2004 AD), Tafsīr Tasnīm, second edition, Qom, Isrāʿ.

- Khizrami, Seyyed Ahmad Reza; Bayram, Maʿedeh, (2015 AD), Analyzing the role of Patricia Crone's skeptical approach in the formation of her views in the book "The Trade of Mecca and the Emergence of Islam", History of Islam in the Mirror of Research, Fall and Winter, Year 13, Number Two , serial 41, pp. 43-60.

- Kohn, Abraham, (1409 AD), a Treasure of Talmud, translated by Amir Fereydoun Gorgani, Tehran, Ziba.

- Rāghib Isfihānī, Ḥusayn ibn Muḥammad, (2008 AD), Al-Mufradāt fi Gharīb al-Qur'an, Qom, Navid.

- Salem, Abdul Aziz, (2001 AD), Arab history before Islam, translated by Bagher Sadrinia, Tehran, Scientific and Cultural Publications.

- Sobhani, Ja’far, (2006 AD), Belief and Disbelief in the Book and the Sunnah, Imam Ṣādiq Institute (AS), Qom.

- Sobhani, Ja’far, (2013 AD), History of the beginning of Islam from Jahiliyyah to Hijrah to Medina from the perspective of Qur'an and Hadith, Qom, Bayan Javan.

- Tabataba’i, Seyyed Mohammad Hossein, (1417 AH), Al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur'an, Qom, Islamic Publications Office.

- Ya’qubi, Ahmed Ibn Ishaq, (2003 AD), Ya’qubi History, translated by Mohammad Ibrahim Ayati, 8th edition, Tehran, Scientific and Cultural Publishing Company.

- Zamakhsharī, Maḥmūd ibn ’Umar, (1407 AH), Al-Kashshāf an Ḥaqā’iq al-Ghawāmiḍ al-Tanzīl wa ’Uyūn al-Aghāwīl ifi Wujūh al-Ta’wīl, Beirut, Dar al-Kitāb al-Arabī.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v9i9.4027


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.