Ranking as a Predictor of Academic Inferiority Feelings Among Form Three Students in Kisii County, Kenya

Mogaka Moraa Sakina, Chrispus Wawire, Doyne Mugambi


A lot of research has been done on the relationship between ranking and academic performance among students. However, the literature done is scanty on the relationship between ranking and academic inferiority feelings. The main aim of this study was therefore to investigate relationship between ranking and academic inferiority feelings among students who do not perform well. Alfred Adler’s theory of individual psychology forms the theoretical framework of the study. The study adopted a mixed methods sequential explanatory research design. It was carried out in Kisii County, Kenya. The target population was all the Form Three students in public schools in Kenya. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to select the top, average and low-ranking schools in the county. It was further used to stratify schools into boys’ boarding, girls’ boarding, mixed boarding, mixed day and boarding and mixed day schools. Simple random sampling was used in the selection of the 400 respondents. The sample consisted of 400 students selected from 20 schools. The research instruments were questionnaires and an interview schedule for the students administered by the researcher. Personal and academic self-concept inventory (PASCI) was used to collect data on academic inferiority feelings. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to collect data from students on ranking. A pilot study was used to validate and ensure reliability of the research instruments. Both descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were used to analyze data with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The results were presented using frequency tables. The results showed that there was a relationship between ranking and academic inferiority feelings with most of the respondents having moderate feelings of academic inferiority i.e.,72.9%. Sex differences were evident in the study where boys experienced a higher level of academic inferiority feelings with a mean of 67.11as compared to girls who had a mean 65.08. A major recommendation of the study was that the ministry of education should try to do away with ranking totally more so within school ranking which could make the students feel academically inferior.


Ranking; Academic Inferiority Feelings; Academic Performance

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v8i2.2474


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