Understanding the Language of Political-Nimai Poetry of Nima Yooshij, Ahmad Shamloo, Mehdi Akhavan-Sales and Forough Farrokhzad based on Shklovsky's Theory with the Phonetic Deviation Approach

Hasan Saadatnoori, Jalil Moshayedi, Hasan Haidary


The present article’s subject is understanding the language of political-Nimai poetry of Nima Yooshij, Ahamd Shamloo, Mehdi Akhavan-Sales and Forough Farrokhzad based on Shklovsky's theory with the phonetic deviation approach through a descriptive and analytical method, 222 poems from Nimai political poems of the four poets (Nima, Akhavan, Shamloo and Forough) separately for each poet; 75 poets by Nima, 82 poets by Akhavan, 44 poets by Shamloo and 21 poets by Forough, according to the definition of political poetry in this research, to get familiar with phonetic deviation methods in political poems of the mentioned poets. According to findings of the article, Nima, Akhavan, Shamloo and Forough, in their deviations, have used the methods of 1- removing the moving ya among the words ended in long vowel and connected pronouns (42 items by Nima, 10 items by Shamloo, 54 items by Akhavan and 12 items by Forough) 2- stressing the abbreviation and vice versa (24 items by Nima, 27 items by Shamloo, 36 items by Akhavan and 34 items by Forough) 3- vowelizing consonants and consonantizing vowels  (10 items by Nima, 9 items by Shamloo, 43 items by Akhavan and 4 items by Forough) 4- removing the kasre ezafe in the words ended in silent “ha” (16 items by Nima, 12 items by Shamloo, 60 items by Akhavan and 3 items by Forough) in the poets studied.


Poetry; Politics; Political Poetry; Phonetic Deviation

Full Text:



Ahani, Gholam Hossein (1960) A Review of Meanings in Poetry and Prose of Persian, Tehran, Taeid

Ahmadi Givi, Hassan (1984), Literature and Writing, Tehran, Allameh Tabataba'i University

Akhavan Saleh, Mehdi (2016) Full Text of Ten Books, Tehran, Zemestan

Afrasiyabi, Faramarz (2001) Linguistic Analysis of Forough's Poems, Shiraz University, Thesis

Amani Zavarem, Vahid (1997) Political Critical Discourse in Mehdi Akhavan-Sales's Poetry, June 5, p. 320.

Anvari and Ahmadi Givi (2007) Persian grammar 2, Tehran, Fatemi cultural institute

Jafari, Mohammad Taghi, (2007) The Philosophy of Political Principles of Islam, Tehran, Institute for the Compilation and Publication of Allame Ja'fari's Works

Jalali, Behrouz (2000) The Divan of Forough Farrokhzad's Poems, Tehran, Morvarid.

Hoghoughi, Mohammad (1989) poetry and poets, Tehran, Negah

Dorosti, Ahmad (2002) Political poetry in the second Pahlavi era, Tehran, Islamic Revolutionary Guards Documentation Center

Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar (1965) Dictionary, Tehran, University of Tehran

New Dissertation, C 4: 46 47.)

Shamloo, Ahmad (2015) Collection of Works, book 1 (poems), Tehran, Negah

Shafiei Kodkoni, Mohammad Reza (2012) resurrection of words, Tehran, Speech

Shafiei Kadkani (1994) Mohammad Reza; Poet of Mirrors, Tehran, Awareness

Shamisa, Sirous (2004) Literary critique, Tehran, Ferdows

Shamisa, Sirous (1997) Generalities of Stylistics, Tehran, Ferdows

Safavi, Sirous (1994). From linguistics to literature vol. 1, poetry, Tehran: Cheshmeh.

Tahbaz, Sirous (2004) Complete collection of poems by Nima Yooshij, Tehran, Negah

Anbarri Zargar, Mahdi (2006) The Study of Language and Thought of Mehdi Akhavan-Sales, Thesis, Azad University of Mashhad

Farshidrood, Khosro (2005) Detailed instruction of today, Tehran, Sokhan

Qarib, Mirza Abdul Azim (1959) Persian grammar, Tehran, Islami Seminary

Kamyar, Vahidian and Omrani, Gholam Reza (2011) Persian grammar (1), Tehran

Types of deviation in poetry (1991), Khavaran Monthly, No. 7 and 8 p. 13

Khomeini, Ruhollah (1998) Philosophy of Politics, Qom, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute

Madani, Seyyed Jalaluddin (2013) The Fundamentals of Politics, Tehran, Paydar

Moin, Mohammad, Ezafe, 1 p. 24)

Moin, Mohammad (1977) Persian Dictionary, 6 volumes, Tehran, Amirkabir, Tehran

Movahed, Zia (2012) Poetry, Tehran, Morvarid

Mirzaei, Mohammad (2009) Akhavan's Disappointments, Hafez, No. 60, p. 38

Natel Khanlari, Parviz (1990) History of Farsi, Tehran, Nashre No

Nabavi, Mehran and Mohajar, Behzad (1997) toward Linguistics of Poetry, Tehran, Center

Vahidian Kamyar, Taqi (1992) A Study of the Stressing from the View of Science and the Dissolution of a Spelling Problem, Journal of Development of Educating Farsi Literature, No. 24, 29-30

Vincent Andrew (1997) Theories of the Government, translated by Hossein Bashariye, Tehran, Ney

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v7i11.1972


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.