Assessment of Perceived Discrimination and Self-esteem Among Students of Manjo Ethnic Background in Schools and Colleges of Bonga Town

Aklilu Ayele Haile, Getachew Roba Agegnew


The objective of this study was assessing perceived discrimination and self-esteem among Manjo students. Descriptive and co-relational survey design was employed to investigate the issues. One hundred twelve students from schools and college were included on the principles of comprehensive sampling for institutions and snowball sampling for participants. Data was collected using close ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview guides. The collected data was analyzed using percentage, mean, Pearson correlation, independent test, and one-way ANOVA for quantitative information while thematic analysis was used for qualitative information. The results show that a) there was significant variation on mean self-esteem across different grade levels (F (2, 109) =11.68 at P<0.05), and age groups (F (2, 109) =35.00 at p<0.05), b) SE has significant positive relation with age (r=.588), grade level (r=.740), SES (r=.419), and PD (r= 0.26), c) there was no mean variation between male and female participants in SE (t (110) =1.33, P>0.05) and PD (t (110) = -0.598, P>0.05).

Nearly all respondents (95.5%) believed that they are socially discriminated by non-Manjo people both inside and outside the school compound which includes disgrace, segregation, neglect, mock, receiving negative ethnic proverbs, insult, discouragement, being called by nick name, physical abuse, harassment, and beat were found as major discriminative behaviors frequently faced. Also, respondents (91%) perceive that they are socially discriminated because of being a member Manjo ethnic group which is given unjustified negative stereotypes. On the basis of findings and discussions, it is concluded that social discrimination still exists in the area mainly caused by shared stereotype and prejudice. Finally, on the basis of findings and conclusions implications for future directions on alleviating the existing situations are forwarded.


Perceived Discrimination; Self-Esteem; Caste System and Manjo

Full Text:



Ahmed Ismael (2009). Educational and social challenges of Students of Manjo ethnic students; AAU, Addis Ababa; unpublished master thesis.

Alramiah,A. and Hewston, M. (2010). The social psychology of discrimination: theory, measurement and consequences. Retrieved from http:wwwequality.e/getfile/asp?Fc_ID720 k&docID=947.

Andrew,F., & Virginia,W.H.(2010). Discrimination hurts; the academic, psychological and physical wellbeing of adolescents. Journal of research on Adolescents, 20, (4), 916-941. Confirmation: Implications for Self- Esteem.

Bachman, J.D. O’malley,P.M. (2010). Adolescent self-esteem:differences by race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Journal of Self and Identity,oo, (000), 000-000.

Belay Getaneh (2010). Assessment of self-esteem and perceived adequacy of social support among elders of Debre markos town. un published master thesis, AAU, Addis Ababa;

Berhane Getinet (2006). Assessment of non-clinical depression among migrants of Ethiopian Jews, residing in Addis Ababa; a comparative study. AAU, Addis Ababa, unpublished master thesis.

Brandes combe,N.R., and Schimit,M.T.(2002).Meaning and consequences of perceived discrimination in disadvantaged and privileged social groups.European review of social psychology.12,167-199.

Campbell,R.N.(1984). The new science: Self-esteem. Psychology university.

Dagmawi Tesfaye (2005). The Manjo marginalized minorities in Kaffa Zone, South western Ethiopia: An Ethno-history up to 1991. AAu Addis Ababa, Unpublished master thesis.

Discrimination and Coexistence in Kaffa, Southwest Ethiopia: Proceedings of the 16th international conference of Ethiopian studies. AAU Addis Ababa.

Eccleston, C. P., & Major, B.N. (2006). Attributions to discrimination and self- Esteem: The Role of group identification and appraisals. Journal of Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 9 (2), 147–162. Doi: 0.1177/1368430206062074.

Felix, N. (2006). Psycho-Social Predictors of Perceived Discrimination among Adolescents of immigrant Background: A Portuguese Study; Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies32, (1),89

Freeman, D. & Pankhurst, A. (2003). The North-West. Peripheral People: The Excluded Minorities of Ethiopia. Asmara: The Red Sea Press.

Gezahgn Petros (2003). Land tenure and natural resource management in Bonga forest, south western Ethiopia:The case of Kafecho and Manjo. Farm Africa, AA.

Harris,B., Rowley, S. J., Kurtz,C., & Valrie,C.R. (2007). Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Socialization as a Protective Factor;journal of research on adolescence, 17(4), 669–682. doi: 10.111/j1532- 7795.2007.00540.

Harris,B., Rowley, S. J., Kurtz, C., & Valrie,C.R. (2007). Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Socialization as a Protective Factor; journal of research on adolescence, 17(4), 669–682. doi: 10.111/j1532- 7795.2007.00540

Hashim, M., Pamela, B., Dan. S., Allen H.(2009). Perceived discrimination and mental health disorders: The South African Stress and Health study; south African Medical Journal, 99 (5) 383-389, retrieved from http://www.;Annual Review of Sociology,Vol. 17 pp. 351-383: retrieved on 21/12/2010 06:52.

Kasahun Zewdie (2007). An assessment of self-esteem and academic achievement of hearing impaired students; AAU, Addis Ababa; un published master’s thesis.

Kessler,R., Mickelson,K.D., and Williams,D.R.(1999). The prevalence, Distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the USA. Journal of health and social behavior,40, 208-230. Retrieved from http://www.

Lange,W.J.(1982). History of southern Gonga.Fronzsteiner verlag. wiesbader. Manstead and Hewstone (1999). The Black well encyclopedia of Social Psychology; Blackwell Publishers Inc; Malden, Massachusetts. Http//

Major, B., Cheryl ,R., Kaiser ,L., O’Brien, T.,& McCoy, K.T.(2007). Perceived discrimination as Worldview Threat or Worldview.

Moradi, B. and Risco,C.(2004). Perceived Discrimination Experiences and Mental Health of Latina/o American Persons. Journal of Counseling Psychology. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.53.4.411.

Panchanadeswaran, S., & Dawson,B.A.(2011) How Discrimination and Stress Affects Self- Esteem Among Dominican Immigrant Women: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Social Work in Public Health, 26, (1),60 -77. doi: 10.1080/10911350903341069.

Pankhurst, A. (1999). Caste in Africa: the evidence from south-western Ethiopia reconsidered’. Africa 69(4), 485-509. Department of Sociology, Addis of America.

Rhodes, J., Roffman, J., Ranjini, R., Reddy, R, & Fredriksen, K. (2004). Changes in self-esteem during the middle school years: a latent growth curve study of individual and contextual influences. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 243–261. doi 10.1016/j.jsp.2004.04.001

Salsali, S.(2003)The demographic correlates of perception of constraints. Retrieved from http://www.plarticles/mi-qa3711/i3-200202ain9049618.

Sayuri, Y. (2008). Why did the Manjo convert to Protestant? Social

Sayuri, Y. (2008). Why did the Manjo convert to Protestant? Social

Smith, E.R., &Mackie,D.M.(2007).SocialPsychology(3rded).McGraw-Hill company,USA.

William A. V., and Rumbaut, G. R. (1991). Ethnic Minorities and Mental.

Wong, C. A., Eccles, S. & Sameroff A. (2003). The Influence of Ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents’ school and socio- emotional adjustment, Journal of Personality, l71 (6).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.