The Comparison of External Logical Metaphors in Leveling Books for Children

Devanni Kusuma Putri, Mangatur Nababan, Tri Wiratno


This study aims to determine the presence and logical meanings of logical metaphors in leveling books for children, focusing on levels 1, 3, and 4 obtained from StoryWeaver and Let's Read on the Penjaring Website. The total number of storybooks examined in this study are 11, consisting of 5 storybooks for levels 1, 4 storybooks for level 3, and 2 storybooks for level 4. The study focuses solely on linguistic aspects, particularly incongruent conjunctions as logical metaphors. The use of these metaphors can pose challenges related to vocabulary not suitable for the target age. To address this, the study applies Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) frameworks on conjunctive relations. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, this multiple-case study employs triangulation through data-collecting methods and source data selection, ensuring trustworthiness. Methods include document analysis and FGD, with source data selected using purposive sampling. Data analysis involves domain, taxonomy, componential, and cultural-theme analysis. The result suggests that there is variation in the use of logical metaphors across different levels of children's books. Level 1 books use logical metaphors less frequently compared to higher levels. Level 1 books use conjunction as circumstance indicate the sequence of events and conjunction as process to show consequence. In contrast, conjunction as a thing is only found in level 3 and 4 books. Additionally, conjunctions as circumstance and process convey various logical meanings more frequently than in level 1. This study also found that conjunction as thing releases means logical meaning. Based on the findings, it is important for writers to consider using logical metaphors, especially in level 1 books, due to readability issues. Therefore, understanding the structure of each level is crucial for creating effective books for children.


logical metaphor; logical meaning; children’s storybooks; SFL

Full Text:



Davidson, Marcia. 2013. “Books That Children CAN Read: Decodable Books and Book Leveling.” (November):iii–23.

Halliday, M.A.K.; Matthisen, Christian M. I. M. 2004. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Thrid. New York: Oxford University Press.

Izzati, Novia, Djatmika, and Riyadi Santosa. 2019. “Grammatical Intricacy Dalam Cerita Pendek Karya Penulis Anak Indonesia.” LiNGUA: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa Dan Sastra 14(1):213–22. doi: 10.18860/ling.v14i1.6710.

Liwenlin, Liwenlin, M. R. Nababan, and Riyadi Santosa. 2019. “Comparing Logical Metaphor as Conjunctive Relation in the Novel Pride and Prejudice and Its Indonesian Version.” 338(Prasasti):2011–14. doi: 10.2991/prasasti-19.2019.33.

Martin, J.R.; Rose, David. 2007. Working with Discourse: Meaning Beyond the Clause. Second. New York: Continuum.

Rog, L. J., and W. Burton. 2001. “Matching Texts and Readers: Leveling Early Reading Materials for Assessment and Instruction.” The Reading Teacher 55(4):348–56.

Santosa, Riyadi. 2003a. Semiotika Sosial: Pandangan Terhadap Bahasa. 1th ed. Surabaya: Pustaka Eureka.

Santosa, Riyadi. 2003b. Semiotika Sosial. 1st ed. Surabaya: Pustaka Eureka.

Santosa, Riyadi. 2010. “Bentuk Dan Makna Metafora Logikal Dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Gaya Bahasa.” Kajian Linguistik Dan Sastra 22(2):183–92.

Santosa, Riyadi. 2011. Logika Wacana: Analisis Hubungan Konjungtif Dengan Pendekatan Linguistik Sistemik Fungsional. 1st ed. Solo: UNS Press.

Santosa, Riyadi. 2021. Dasar-Dasar Metode Penelitian Kualitatif Kebahasaan. 1st ed. Surakarta: UNS Press.

Santosa, Riyadi, Agus Dwi Priyanto, Tri Wiratno, Yanuar Yanuar, and Djatmika Djatmika. 2022. “Patterns of Conjunctive Relation (CR) in Phases and Stages of Narratives in Year Three Junior High School English Books and Their Pedagogical Implication.” Script Journal: Journal of Linguistics and English Teaching 7(01):104–29. doi: 10.24903/sj.v7i01.1037.

Santosa, Riyadi, Sumarlam, Tri Wiratno, Agus Dwi Priyanto, and Ratna Susanti. 2021. “Internal Continuatives and Logical Metaphors: A Development of Classifying Conjunctive Relation.” JEES (Journal of English Educators Society) 6(2):284–92. doi: 10.21070/jees.v6i2.1360.

Santosa, Riyadi, Tri Wiratno, Agus Dwi Priyanto, and Djatmika. 2023. Genre Dan Register Untuk Penelitian Dan Pengajaran. 1st ed. Surakarta: UNS Press.

Sholihah, Husna Imro’athush, Riyadi Santosa, and Djatmika Djatmika. 2018. “Analisis sirkumstan pada buku cerita anak the 7 habbits of happy kids karya sean covey dan terjemahannya (Kajian Terjemahan Dengan Pendekatan Systemic Functional Linguistics).” LINGUA: Journal of Language, Literature and Teaching 15(1):29. doi: 10.30957/lingua.v15i1.428.

Spradley, J. P. 1980. Participant Observation. New York: Rinehart and Winston.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.