English Teacher Agency in Implementing of HOTS-Based Learning: A Case Study at a State Islamic High School in Mataram

Ovia Wulansari, Yuni Budi Lestari


Higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) are crucial for students when dealing with intense global competition. In the Indonesian education context, the recent high school national curriculum requires that students develop HOTS an important component of Pancasila student character. The curriculum implies the importance of the agentive role of teachers in implementing HOTS-based learning. However, studies on teacher agency in HOTS-based English language learning, especially in the Indonesian context, have remained under-examined.  This study aims to explore teacher agency in responding to a policy mandate to implement HOTS-based learning in local English language classrooms in Indonesia.  This study uses a sociocultural theoretical lens to examine teacher agency in responding to HOTS-related policy. Using a case study approach this study was conducted at a state Islamic high school in Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. Two English teachers were purposively selected to be the participants of this study. This qualitative study employed observations and interviews as the techniques of data collection. The result found that the teachers exercise their agency by partially implementing HOTS-based learning as influenced by their knowledge of HOTS, experiences and pedagogical skills, and sociocultural condition of the students and the implication of this study is that support from policymakers, school leaders, and colleague teachers is needed for teachers to play their role actively in the HOTS policy reform.


Teacher Agency; HOTS-based Learning; Ecological Model of Teacher Agency

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