The Process of Learning Through a Problem-Based Model Helps to Address and Correct Historical Misconceptions

Meike Imbar, Darmawan Edi Winoto


The primary source of misunderstandings arises from learning conditions that disregard students' initial beliefs and varying ideas. This study addressed misconceptions by implementing a problem-based learning model that encourages active student involvement. The courses were carefully designed to offer a more focused approach, allowing students to understand historical concepts better. Action research served as the research methodology to tackle classroom learning issues. Data collection methods included interviews, observations, and documentation. In semi-face-to-face interviews, interviewers posed their inquiries and discussed various subjects. The data were analyzed through organization, segmentation, pattern recognition, selection of relevant information, and drawing of conclusions. Following the Miles and Huberman method, this interactive data analysis process continued until completion. In qualitative research, data analysis typically begins with data collection, followed by data reduction, data presentation, and, ultimately, the derivation of conclusions or verification. The findings revealed that students harbored misconceptions about historical information they had not fully comprehended. While several factors contributed to this, it became evident that the core issue identified through problem-based learning was students' inadequate grasp of the fundamental concepts. This became apparent when students encountered difficulties recalling information when asked questions. Problem-based learning typically consists of five crucial stages, starting with the teacher introducing a challenging scenario to students and concluding with the presentation and analysis of student work.


Problem-Based Learning; Misconceptions; Historical Concepts

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