Exploring of Teachers’ Critical Thinking in Pedagogical Context: In Indonesian EFL Teachers’ Perspective

Muh Arief Muhsin, Susanto Susanto, Slamet Setiawan


Teachers in all subject areas, including English, must impart the methodology of critical thinking to their students. One of the 21st century's skills is this idea. Teachers must integrate the idea of critical thinking into their lessons. This study aims to analyze how well EFL teachers in Indonesia integrate critical thinking, taking into account learning design, learning resources, conceptual mastery, implementation, and assessment. EFL teachers from junior and senior high schools made up the 120 respondents in this survey, which was used as the research technique. The EFL instructors polled have all completed professional certification training. According to the findings, up to 77.47% of teachers created lesson plans that included the idea of critical thinking, and just a small fraction didn't. Up to 77.5% of those who assembled educational materials did so with the idea of critical thinking in mind; 76.6% were open-minded; up to 80% were employed in learning; and up to 68.3% used assessment. The idea of critical thinking has generally been included by teachers into English learning resources and exercises. It is necessary to conduct this research in order to assess the effectiveness of teachers who use critical thinking approaches in the classroom. Each of the topics that have been examined both quantitatively and qualitatively should be able to be articulated in further detail with additional study.


Critical Thinking; EFL Teacher; Pedagogy

Full Text:



Akib, E., & Muhsin, M. A. (2019). Assessment of Teaching In 21 ST Century. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1179, 012065. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1179/1/012065

Alagozlu, N. (2017). Critical Thinking and Voice in EFL Writing. Asian EFL Journal, 9(3).

Allen Matthew. (2004). Smart Thinking. Oxford University Press.

Azhary, L., & Ratmanida. (2021). The Implementation of 21st Century Skills (Communication, Collaboration, Creativity and Critical Thinking) in English Lesson Plan at MTsN 6 Agama. Journal of English Language Teaching, 10(4), 608–623. https://doi.org/10.24036/jelt.v9i4.114944

Billah, A., Masykuri, M., Sarwanto, & Sajidan. (2021). Analysis of critical thinking in junior high school students through science learning in Indonesia: A systematic review. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 1796(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1796/1/012013

Brookfield, S. D. (2008). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. In Animal Genetics (Second Edi, Vol. 39, Issue 5). Jossey-Bass A Wiley Brand.

Danczak, S. M., Thompson, C. D., & Overton, T. L. (2017). “What does the term Critical Thinking mean to you?” A qualitative analysis of chemistry undergraduate, teaching staff and employers’ views of critical thinking. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 18(3), 420–434. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6rp00249h

Dixon, F. A., Prater, K. A., Vine, H. M., Wark, M. J., Williams, T., Hanchon, T., & Shobe, C. (2004). Teaching to their thinking: A strategy to meet the critical-thinking needs of gifted students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 28(1), 56–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/016235320402800104

Ennis, R. H. (1996). Critcal Thinking. Prentice Hall.

Erna, M., Elfizar, & Dewi, C. A. (2021). The Development of E-Worksheet Using Kvisoft Flipbook Maker Software Based on Lesson Study to Improve Teacher’s Critical Thinking Ability. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(1), 39–55. https://doi.org/10.3991/IJIM.V15I01.15679

Fisher, A. (2011). Critical thinking (Issue May). Cambridge University Press. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1952-06617-000

Fujii, T. (2016). Designing and adapting tasks in lesson planning: a critical process of Lesson Study. ZDM - Mathematics Education, 48(4), 411–423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-016-0770-3

Golobokov, A. S. (2015). Various forms and mechanisms of Chinese-Russian cooperation in the energy sphere and the role of non-governmental structures. Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(1), 45–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psrb.2016.01.002

González-González, I., & Jiménez-Zarco, A. I. (2015). Using learning methodologies and resources in the development of critical thinking competency: An exploratory study in a virtual learning environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 1359–1366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.002

Gülten, A. Z. (2013). Am I Planning well? Teacher Trainees’ Voices on Lesson Planning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93(2010), 1409–1413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.053


Hayes, K. D., & Devitt, A. A. (2008). Classroom discussions with student-led feedback: A useful activity to enhance development of critical thinking skills: Food science education research. Journal of Food Science Education, 7(4), 65–68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4329.2008.00054.x

James T. Broadbear. (2013). Essential elements of lessons designed to promote critical thinking. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 8(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.14434/josotl.v

Liu, O. L., Frankel, L., & Roohr, K. C. (2014a). Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Current State and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. ETS Research Report Series, 2014(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1002/ets2.12009

Liu, O. L., Frankel, L., & Roohr, K. C. (2014b). Assessing Critical Thinking in Higher Education: Current State and Directions for Next-Generation Assessment. ETS Research Report Series, 2014(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1002/ets2.12009

Marin, M. A., & Pava, L. D. la. (2017). Conceptions of Critical Thinking from University EFL Teachers. English Language Teaching, 10(7), 78. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n7p78

Marzano, R. J., & Kendall, J. S. (2008). Designing & assessing educational objectives: applying the new taxonomy. In Designing and assessing educational objectives. http://mirlyn.lib.umich.edu/Record/005808499

Masduqi, H. (2011). Critical Thinking Skills and Meaning in English Language Teaching. TEFLIN Journal, 22(2), 185–200. http://journal.teflin.org/index.php/journal/article/view/26

Minakova, L. Y. (2014). Critical Thinking Development in Foreign Language Teaching for Non-language-majoring Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 154(October), 324–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.157

Novawan, A., Aisyiyah, S., Miqawati, A. H., Wijayanti, F., & Indrastana, N. S. (2020). Exploring the Teachers’ Perspective on Morality in an English as a Foreign Language Pedagogy. Journal of ELT Research: The Academic Journal of Studies in English Language Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 80–93. https://doi.org/10.22236/JER

Ogle, D., & Correa-Kovtun, A. (2010). Supporting English-Language Learners and Struggling Readers in Content Literacy With the “Partner Reading and Content, Too” Routine. The Reading Teacher, 63(7), 532–542. https://doi.org/10.1598/rt.63.7.1

Pierce, R., & Stacey, K. (2004). A framework for monitoring progress and planning teaching towards the effective use of computer algebra systems. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 9(1), 59–93. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IJCO.0000038246.98119.14

Polly, D., Ausband, L., Polly, D., & Ausband, L. (2014). Skills through WebOuests. January 2015, 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/10402454.2009.10784628

Putra, R. A. A., Riwayatiningsih, R., & Setyarini, S. (2021). Portraying teacher’s metacognitive knowledge to promote efl young learners’ critical thinking in indonesia. International Journal of Language Education, 5(1), 552–568. https://doi.org/10.26858/IJOLE.V5I1.13043

Ripani, M., Putra, A. P., & Dharmono, D. (2018). The Practicality and Effectiveness of Lesson Plan Set on Natural Science Subject in Training The Critical Thinking Skills of Junior High School Students. European Journal of Education Studies, 4(7), 87–102. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1249996

S. Haryati, S. Siswanto S. Sukarno, A. Muhlisin, E. T. (2022). A Case-based Study in ERP Instructional Model : Fostering Critical Thinking Skills and Portraying Independence on Solving Problems. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(4), 220–225. https://doi.org/10.47750/pegegog.12.04.22

Shechtman, Z. (2014). Group counseling in the school. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 11(3), 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits

Sismiati, & Latief, M. A. (2012). Developing Instructional Materials on English Oral Communication for Nursing Schools. TEFLIN Journal, 23(1), 44–59.

Suciati, R., Gofur, A., Susilo, H., & Lestari, U. (2022). Development of Textbook Integrated of Metacognition, Critical Thinking, Islamic Values, and Character. Pegem Egitim ve Ogretim Dergisi, 12(4), 20–28. https://doi.org/10.47750/pegegog.12.04.03

Sukarni, E. I., Winarni, D., & Nirmayanti, Y. T. (2015). Improving Teachers’ Professionalism Through Materials Development, Information Technology and Classroom Action Research. TEFLIN Journal, 20(2), 212. https://doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v20i2/212-231

Syahrial, S., Asrial, A., Kurniawan, D. A., & Pratama, R. A. (2019). Towards improving the critical thinking skills of pre-service teachers in Indonesia. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 13(4), 575–582. https://doi.org/10.11591/edulearn.v13i4.13613

Tanriverdi, B., Turan, H., & Assist, R. (2012). Evaluating teacher education Egitim Arastirmalari. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 47(47), 23–40.

Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(5), 675–691. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X05000129

Toulmin, S. E. (2003). The uses of argument: Updated edition. In The Uses of Argument: Updated Edition (13th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Turpin, L., & Durham, J. (2017). Designing and teaching an online teacher training course: Integrating critical thinking skills into the exploration of culture in an EFL setting. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 26(3), 231–248.

Xhakaj, F., Aleven, V., & McLaren, B. M. (2017). Effects of a teacher dashboard for an intelligent tutoring system on teacher knowledge, lesson planning, lessons and student learning. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 10474 LNCS, 315–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-66610-5_23

Yang, Y. T. C. (2012). Cultivating critical thinkers: Exploring transfer of learning from pre-service teacher training to classroom practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1116–1130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.06.007

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v10i5.4713


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.