Appraisal: Framing on Covid-19 Pandemic Handling News in Indonesia

Teisar Arkida, Djatmika Djatmika, Riyadi Santosa


Appraisal research in political discourse has frequently been investigated to examine media stance and ideology towards pros-cons issue. This condition implicates a gap in the form of the realization and implication of the evaluation language in forming not only the issue reported, but also the framing of certain political figures. Media reports in Indonesia on post-pandemic peak handling stimulate public discussion about 2024 general election. Accordingly, this study examines framing building in COVID-19 news text to understand the use of evaluation language in constructing the images of Anies Baswedan and Ganjar Pranowo as presidential candidates for 2024. Descriptive-qualitative research on is carried out through content analysis using the SFL approach and appraisal theory. Total sampling is used in collecting the data from 6 prominent news texts about pandemic handling. Every aspect of attitude is utilized to build positive impression in the news texts. Graduation and engagement analysis show the imbalance of journalists in emphasizing content narratives and news point of view. Framing analysis reveals that Anies is described as an ambitious figure framed through the +valuation, +impact, -propriety features, while Ganjar is portrayed as an indomitable and sincere figure using the +tenacity, +inclination, and +security features. Pandemic handling news on contain bias which is detrimental to Anies but beneficial to Ganjar. The neutrality bias of journalists in this context has the potential to build new social values which may affect the political situation in 2024.


Systemic Functional Linguistics; Appraisal; Framing; COVID-19 news; 2024 General Election

Full Text:



Aloy Mayo, M., & Taboada, M. (2017). Evaluation in political discourse addressed to women: Appraisal analysis of Cosmopolitan’s online coverage of the 2014 US midterm elections. Discourse, Context & Media, 18, 40–48.

Baden, C., & Tenenboim-Weinblatt, K. (2018). Viewpoint, Testimony, Action: How journalists reposition source frames within news frames. Journalism Studies, 19(1), 143–161.

Chalimah, C., Santosa, R., Djatmika, D., & Wiratno, T. (2018). Evaluating Attitudes in News Text: Appraisal in Critical Discourse Study. Proceedings of the Fourth Prasasti International Seminar on Linguistics (Prasasti 2018).

Digital 2022: Indonesia. (2022). DataReportal – Global Digital Insights.

Dunning, E. (2018). #TrumpStyle: The Political Frames and Twitter Attacks of Donald Trump. The Journal of Social Media in Society, 7(2), 205–231.

Engelbrecht, A. (2020). An Appraisal Theory Approach to News Reports on Rhino Poaching in South Africa. Language Matters, 51(1), 86–112.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Media Discourse: Voices. London: Edward Arnold.

Halliday, M. A. K., Matthiessen, C. M., Halliday, M., & Matthiessen, C. (2014). An introduction to functional grammar. Routledge.

Jullian, P. M. (2011). Appraising through someone else’s words: The evaluative power of quotations in news reports. Discourse & Society, 22(6), 766–780.

Kamal, M. (2017). Sikap Jurnalis dalam Teks Berita Hukuman Kebiri Kimia [PhD Thesis]. UNS (Sebelas Maret University).

Khalid, P. Z. B. M. (2013). Modality Analysis of the Newspaper Articles about the Scottish Ship RMS Queen Elizabeth. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.

Kim Ngan, N. T., & Huong Lan, N. T. (2020). A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ATTITUDE IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE MEDIA TEXTS IN THE LIGHT OF APPRAISAL THEORY. VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, 36(3). Competitive Analysis, Marketing Mix and Traffic—Alexa. (2021). Traffic Analytics & Market Share. (2021). Similarweb; Similarweb.

Lakoff, G. (2004). Don’t Think of an Elephant!: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate: The Essential Guide for Progressives. Chelsea Green Publishing Company.

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalist inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Lodhi, M. A., Mukhtar, S., Akhtar, S., Nafees, K., Akhtar, N., & Sajid, H. M. (2019). Textual and Rhetoric Analysis of News Headlines of Urdu and English Newspapers. International Journal of English Linguistics, 9(1), 324–342.

Macken-Horarik, M., & Isaac, A. (2014). Appraising appraisal. Evaluation in Context, 242, 67–92.

Martin, J. R., & Rose, D. (2003). Working with discourse: Meaning beyond the clause. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Martin, J. R., & White, P. R. R. (2005). The Language of Evaluation. Palgrave Macmillan UK.

McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176.

Ng, A. (2017). Causality in Historical Expositions: An Ideational, Interpersonal & Textual Analysis.

Nindita, H. (2021). Bursa Capres 2024, Pengamat: Anies Baswedan dan Ganjar Pranowo Memiliki Kekuatan Seimbang.

Nurhadi, K. (2017). The Appraisal Analysis of National Exam Issues: A Discourse Analysis. Academic Journal Perspective : Education, Language, and Literature, 5(1), 12.

Olivia, S., Gibson, J., & Nasrudin, R. (2020). Indonesia in the Time of Covid-19. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 56(2), 143–174.

Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G. M. (1993). Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse. Political Communication, 10(1), 55–75.

Pusparini, A., Djatmika, D., & Santosa, R. (2017). Analisis Sistem Appraisal Berita Proses Eksekusi Duo Bali Nine (Pendekatan Linguistik Sistemik Fungsional). Paramasastra: Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa Sastra Dan Pembelajarannya, 4(2).

Puspita, D., & Pranoto, B. E. (2021). The attitude of Japanese newspapers in narrating disaster events: Appraisal in critical discourse study. Studies in English Language and Education, 8(2), 796–817.

Rahman, A. (2020). Ideology and power in the headlines a critical discourse analysis of Bangladesh-China relations. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: G Linguistics & Education, 20(7), 8–26.

Roozenbeek, J., Schneider, C. R., Dryhurst, S., Kerr, J., Freeman, A. L. J., Recchia, G., van der Bles, A. M., & van der Linden, S. (2020). Susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19 around the world. Royal Society Open Science, 7(10), 201199.

Sabao, C. (2016). Arguments for an appraisal linguistic discourse approach to the analysis of ‘objectivity’in ‘hard’news reports. African Journalism Studies, 37(1), 40–63.

Santosa, R. (2003). Semiotika Sosial: Pendekatan terhadap Bahasa. Pustaka Eureka & JP Pres: Surabaya.

Santosa, R. (2009). Genre in media discourse. Journal of Bahasa Sastra Dan Studi Amerika, 1(1), 1–23.

Santosa, R. (2017). Metode penelitian kualitatif kebahasaan. Surakarta: UNS press.

Santosa, R., Priyanto, A. D., & Nuraeni, A. (2014). Genre and register of antagonist’s language in media: An appraisal study of indonesian newspapers. K@ Ta, 16(1), 23–36.

Soo‐Guan Khoo, C., Nourbakhsh, A., & Na, J. (2012). Sentiment analysis of online news text: A case study of appraisal theory. Online Information Review, 36(6), 858–878.

Spradley, J. P. (2016). Participant observation. Waveland Press.

Surjowati, R. (2019). Appraisal and Newspaper in EFL Critical Reading Class. UNNES International Conference on English Language Teaching, Literature, and Translation (ELTLT 2018), 289–292.

Tavassoli, F., Jalilifar, A., & White, P. R. (2019). British newspapers’ stance towards the Syrian refugee crisis: An appraisal model study. Discourse & Society, 30(1), 64–84.

Thompson, J. B. (2013). Ideology and modern culture: Critical social theory in the era of mass communication. John Wiley & Sons.

van Dijk, T. A. (1993). Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis. Discourse & Society, 4(2), 249–283.

Van Driel, M. A. (2018). Online news reporting: A comparative textual analysis of hard news live blogs and traditional online news articles and a reader response analysis using appraisal [PhD Thesis]. University of Birmingham.

Wei, M. (2017). A Comparative Study of Appraisal in News Discourse in China and the United States: The Case of Reports on Educational Equity. Linguistics Journal.

Wu, R., & Zhao, X. (2018). Appraisal Analysis of Attitude Resources in Russian “Belt and Road Initiative” News. International Journal of Liberal Arts and Social Science, 6(5), 1–7.

Zhang, M. (2013). Stance and mediation in transediting news headlines as paratexts. Perspectives, 21(3), 396–411.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.