Inclusiveness of Diplomatic Immunity in Islamic View

Nur Salam, Surwandono Surwandono


This study aims to determine how inclusive diplomatic immunity in the view of Islam. The object of research is Islamic law, namely the Qur'an, As Sunnah and the consistent practice of Muslim heads of state. The data sources for this research are surveys and observations. The assessment of diplomatic immunity problems was analyzed using NVivo 12 Plus and VOS viewer to document and analyze the data systematically. The results of the study show the inclusiveness of diplomatic immunity which has been discussed before the western view. it has formulated strong foundations and rules to protect diplomats from harm and murder. Other privileges such as freedom of movement and communication, protection of diplomatic bag and courier, inviolability. Islamic law has emphasized the importance of fulfilling obligations under an agreement and not deviate from the spirit of Sharia.


Inclusiveness; Immunity; Diplomat

Full Text:



Afzal Iqbal, Islamic Diplomacy, Jakarta: Al Kautsar Library: 2007

Al-Qaradawi, Y. (2001). What is halal and what is forbidden in Islam (Al-Halal Wal-Haram Fil Islam). Al-Falah Foundation, Cairo.

Arjoun, SI (1981). Khalid bin Walid. Jeddah: Al-Dar Al-Saudiah.

Dahlan, Zaini et al. The Qur'an and its Tafsir Volume V Juz 13-14-15. Yogyakarta: PT. Bhakti Waqf Fund, 1991.

David, JB (2001). International Law in Antiquity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Accessed on December 10, 2021, at 20.00 getting hot

Ibn Ali, H. (2002). Government Book or Government Regulation (Darke H. Trans.). Persian Heritage Foundation, London. (Original work published 1960).

Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Tafsir Al-Qur‟anul Azim), Jakarta: Imam Ash-Shafii's library, 2010

Ismail, MBA (2013). Justification and the Principle of Diplomatic Immunity: A Comparison between Islamic International Law and International Law. Journal of Islamic State Practices in International Law, 9(1), p. 60-101.

Istanbuli, Y. (2001). Diplomacy and the practice of diplomacy in the early Islamic era. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Kurizaki, SA (2011). Natural History of Diplomacy; When Diplomacy Works. I University, Texas.

Lipman, JN (1998). Familiar Foreigners: The History of Muslims in Northwest China. Washington: The University of Washington Press.

Malekian, F. (2011). Islamic International Law Resources. In Islamic Principles of International Criminal Law: Comparative Search (pp. 63-82). Leiden; Boston: Brill. Accessed 10 December 2021, from

Morris, WG (2007). Constitutional Solutions to the Problem of Diplomatic Crime and Immunity. Hofstra's Legal Review,36(2). Available at: http://

Shihab, M. Quraish. Tafsir Al-Mishbah Volume 6. Jakarta: Lentera Hati, 2002.

Stewart, David P. 2013. The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act: A Guide for Judges. Federal Judicial Center: Washington DC

Tulus Warsito and Surwandono, Tauqifiyah Journal, Clean Diplomacy” In Islamic Perspective, Vol. 16, No. 2, December 2015

Without a name. Holy see’s press office communique 15.09.2017 Accessed from nt/salastampa/en/bollettino/pubblico/2017/09/15/holy-see-press-office-communique.html on December 10, 2021, at 20.00

Young, John W. 2014. “The United Kingdom and the Negotiation of the 1969 New York Convention on Special Missions.” International History Review 36(1): 171–88.

Zawati, HM (2001). Is Jihad a Just War? War, Peace and Human Rights Under Islam and Public International Law. Lewiston and New York: Edwin Mellen Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.