Content of the Philosophical Term “Golden Mean” “中庸” in Confucius Doctrine

Nargiza Rasuljanovna Ismatullayeva


Confucianism is one of the leading ideological teachings of ancient China. A number of publications have described Confucianism as both a religious, moral, and political doctrine. This article is devoted to the analysis of the lexical meanings of the word “中庸” zhōngyōng – “golden mean”, one of the social philosophical terms in the teachings of Confucius, and the philosophical content of the doctrine. The article examines the meaning of this philosophical term, such as the translation of wise sayings of Confucianism in such works as “Analects”, “Golden Mean”. 


"Golden Mean"; Confucianism; Morality; Ideology; Virtue; "Analects"; " The Book of Rites"

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《辞海》(Dictionary “Sea of words”). – 上海:上海辞书出版社, 1999. P. 3991.

《论语》(“Analects”). 山东曲阜,1985年./ “雍也” (“As for Yong”). p. 37, Chapter 29.

子思 – Zisi (483-402 BC) was a descendant of Confucius.

南宋 (Nan Song) – The reign of the Southern Sun dynasty lasted from 1127 to 1279.

Aristotle (384-322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and encyclopedic scientist.

《中华儒学精华画集》·《中庸》(“A collection of Chinese Confucian paintings, the book “Golden Mean”). –吉林:吉林文史出版社,1994 y. p.1.

《哲学辞典》(“Dictionary of Philosophy”) . –吉林:吉林人民出版社,1985 y. p. 99.

《论语》(“Analects”). 山东曲阜,1985年./ “子罕” (“The master is rare”). p. 54, Chapter 8.

《论语》(“Analects”). 山东曲阜,1985年./ “尧曰” (“Yao says”). p. 137, Chapter 1.

论语》(“Analects”). 山东曲阜,1985 y./ “先进” (“Learn first”). p. 69, Chapter 16.

论语》(“Analects”). 山东曲阜,1985年./ “尧曰” (“Yao says”). p. 139, Chapter 2.

礼记》“The Book of Rites”, “Memorandum of Ethics” - m.a. It was formed by the second and third generation disciples of Confucius in the 4th-1st centuries. Since the collection consists of 19 chapters, each section belongs to a different author. In general, the play depicts a perfect Confucian model of the social mechanism. It reflects the basis of political administration, the nomenclature of officials and departments, the protocol from ceremonial procedures to the norms of interaction within the family and the rituals, customs, and more precisely, mourning rituals in the main life situations.

史记》 " Historical Records " – Written by Sima Qian (司马迁145-87 y. BC), a historian of the Han dynasty in the 2nd-1st centuries. The work covers the semi-authentic, semi-mythical period of antiquity - the period from the reign of the legendary Huangdi (黄帝 – 3rd millennium BC) to Han Udi (汉武帝 140-87y BC). The play depicts historical events in the fields of politics, economics and culture.

Shun (舜 ) (XXIII century BC) - one of the ancient Chinese legendary heroes. The legendary ruler of China, Yao (尧 ), handed over power to Shu, famous for his good qualities. Shun, in turn, gave power not to his son Shang, but to the generous Yu (禹 ). Confucius considered Yao, Shun and Yu to be perfect human beings and exemplary rulers.

Zilu 子路 (Zhilu) or 仲由 (Zhong You) (542-480 BC) was from the Lu principality and one of the four authentic disciples of Confucius.

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