A Critical Analysis of Aziza Hibri's Theory on "Women's Legal System in the Qur'an" According to the Principles of Shia Jurisprudence

Mahmud Seyedy, Somayeh Abarghoie


According to Aziza Hibri, Tawhid (i.e. monotheism) is the most basic Qur'anic teaching that affects all Islamic laws, including family law. According to this principle, men and women have the same rights and laws in the family system, the denial of which leads to injustice and inequality and hence the evil argument. According to Hibri, the correct inference of Islamic rules depends on recognizing the reasons for the legislation of Islamic rules. By gradual changes of these causes and factors, sharia laws, which have patriarchal attitudes of ignorance time, are undergoing change due to changes in the temporal-spatial conditions. These changes are in laws such as alimony, dowry, polygamy, and divorce. According to the principles of Shia jurisprudence and its authentic hadiths, analogy is not correct in the Shari'a rules and is itself a kind of satanic argument. Therefore, the foundations of Aziza Hibri and his theory in this regard face major shortcomings and challenges and are not compatible with Qur’anic verses.


Aziza Hibri; Tawhid; ʿIlal al-Sharāyiʿ; Woman

Full Text:



The Holy Qur’an

Alam al-Huda, Ali bin Hussein, (1998 AD), Amālī Al-Murtiḍā (Ghurar al-Fawā’id wa Durar al-Qalāʿid), Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabī, Cairo.

Ghazālī, Abu Hamid, nd, The Revival of Religious Sciences, Beirut: Dar al-Kitāb al-Arabī.

Hibri, Aziza, 2006 AD, Divine Justice and Human Order an Islamic Perspective (Within the Humanity before God), Minneapolis, fortress press.

Hibri, Aziza, 1993 AD, Family Planning and Islamic Jurisprudence, Richmond, the Religious Consultation on Population.

Hibri, Aziza, 2000 AD, Introduction to Muslim Women's Rights, in Windows of Faith, Law Faculty Publications, Michigan.

Hibri, Aziza, 1992 AD, Islamic Constitutionalism and the Concept of Democracy, Case western Reserve Journal of International Law.

Hibri, Aziza, 2005 AD, Nature of Islamic Marriage, Michigan, Grand Rapids.

Hibri, Aziza, 2001 AD, Qur’anic Foundations of the Right of Muslim women in the twenty first century, Jakarta, Sunan Kalijah press.

Hibri, Aziza, 2001 AD, Redefining Muslim Women Roles in the Next Century, Norman Dorsen, Gifford.

Hibri, Aziza, 1993 AD, Symposium on Religious Law, losangeles, LNTl & COMP.

Ḥillī, Hassan Ibn Yūsuf, 1982 AD, Nahj al-Ḥaqq wa Kashf al-Sidq, Beirut: Dar al-Kitāb al-Lebanani.

Ḥurr Āmulī, Muhammad ibn Hassan, 1409 AH, Tafsīl Wasā’il al-Shia ilā Tahsil Masāʾil al-Shari’ah, Al Bayt Foundation, Qom.

Ibn Abi Jumhūr, Muhammad ibn Zayn al-Din, 1405 AH, ʿAwālī al-Laʿālī al-Azīzīyah fi al-Ahadīth al-Dīnīyah, Dar Sayyid al-Shuhada for publication, Qom.

Ibn Babawayh, Muhammad ibn Ali, 1413 AH. Man Lā Yaḥḍuruhu al-Faqīh, Islamic Publications Office affiliated with the Society of Teachers of the Seminary of Qom, Qom.

Ibn Babawayh, Muhammad ibn Ali, 1378 HS, ʿUyūn Akhbār al-Rezā (AS), Jahan Publishing, Tehran.

Ibn Manẓūr, Muhammad ibn Mukarram, 1414 AH, Lisān al-Arab, Dar al-Fikr for printing, publishing and distribution, Dar Sader, Beirut.

Kulaynī, Muhammad ibn Ya`qub ibn Isḥāq, 1407 AH, al-Kāfī, Dar al-Kutub al-Islāmīyah, Tehran.

Majlisī, Muhammad Bāqir, (1403 AH), Bihar Al-Anwār Al-Jāmi’ah Li Durar Akhbār A’immah al-Athar, Dar Ihyā al-Turāth al-Arabī, Beirut.

Majlisī, Muhammad Bāqir, 1404 AH, Mir’āt al-’Ughūl fi Sharh Akhbār Al al-Rasūl, Dar al-Kutub al-Islāmīyah, Tehran.

Suyūṭī, Jalāl al-Dīn. (1404 AH). Al-Durr al-Manthūr fi Tafsir al-Ma’thūr, Qom, Ayatollah Mar’ashī Najafi Library.

Tabataba’i, Sayyid Muhammad Hussein (1417 AH), Al-Mīzān Fi Tafsīr al-Qur’an, Qom, Islamic Publications Office of the Society of Teachers of the Seminary of Qom.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v9i1.3257


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.