Mulla Sadra’s Four Journeys as the Four Levels of Self-Consciousness

Hossein Zamaniha


Mulla Sadra’s philosophy is a creative synthesis of the main currents of thought in the Islamic culture before him. One of the most fruitful amongst these currents is the mystical current which reaches to its climax with Ibn Arabi and his commentators. Mulla Sadra not only has adapted many of the mystical concepts in his philosophy, but he has also used the symbolism of four spiritual journeys as the main theme in his philosophy inasmuch as he named his greatest book after this symbolism as Journeys (Asfār). These journeys in his philosophy in addition to mystical aspect finds philosophical aspect as well. A comprehensive interpretation of these journeys should take in consideration both philosophical and mystical aspects. In this article I have proposed an interpretive approach that include both aspects by taking these four journeys as the four levels of self-consciousness and self-realization. Accordingly, these journeys can be considered as the journey from the self to the self and in the self.


Four Spiritual Journeys; Islamic Mysticism; Mulla Sadra; Self-Consciousness; Gradation of Being

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