Verbal Interaction in Indonesian Language Speaking Course of Higher Education: A Case Study at the University of Surakarta

Ngatmini Ngatmini, Yumrohtun Yumrohtun


Speaking skill plays a crucial role in student’s future professional career. Classroom discourse analysis in Language Teaching and Learning in Indonesia mostly examined English Teaching and Learning as second language acquisition. Thus, the present study aimed to describe the verbal interaction that goes on inside the speaking class of the Indonesian national language for a specific purpose. The study involved a lecturer and forty students of the Indonesian Language and Literature Education Program, in the University of Surakarta (pseudonym). The data were verbal utterances delivered by the lecturer and students in the speaking course. The gathered data were explored and analyzed by employing Flanders Interaction Analysis Category System. Findings revealed that there were ten categories of verbal interaction during the speaking class which was divided into three major stages. Lecturer’s talk contained accepting feelings, praising/encouraging, accepting/using ideas of students, asking questions, lecturing, giving directions, criticizing or justifying authority. Students’ talks included giving responses and initiating. Lastly, the tenth is the silence phase or confusion. On the whole, verbal interaction in classroom discourse of speaking course was dominantly undertaken by students’ talk, in the form of initiation (45%). Meanwhile, the lecturer positioned herself as a facilitator which was realized by a high percentage of ‘giving direction (14%)’ out of seven categories of teacher’ talk. The verbal interaction was conducted fruitfully in the speaking course. Aligning with Harmer (1998), postulated that the high frequency of students talking time rather than teacher's (or lecturer’s) talking time indicates successful teaching in language learning. It is recommended to the lecturer to encourage and give a chance for students to ask or state their ideas in the classroom.


Verbal Interaction; Classroom Interaction; The Indonesian Language Speaking Course; Flanders Interaction Analysis Category System (FIACS)

Full Text:



Ahour, Touran & Saeideh E., M. (2014). The Effect of Metadiscourse Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Ability. Canadian Center of Science and Education. 7(10).

Andriany, Liesna. (2011). Ujaran Interpersonal dalam Wacana Kelas (Analisis Linguistik Sistemik Fungsional). Dissertation. Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan. Retrieved from

Astiti, Ni Wayan Widha. (2012). An Analysis of Teacher Talk in English Classes in SMK PGRI 4 Denpasar. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia, 1(2).

Bygate, Martin. (1987). Speaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Flanders, N. (1970). Analyzing Teacher Behavior. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Handayani, Tri R. M., Agus Trianto, & Ria Ariesta. (2020). Analisis Wacana Kelas dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia pada Pelaksanaan Debat Kelas X SMA Negeri 09 Kota Bengkulu Tahun Ajaran 2019. Jurnal Ilmiah Korpus. 4(1). Retrieved from

Harahap, Alamsyah & Emzir. (2015). Teacher-Students Discourse in English Teaching at High School (Classroom Discourse Analysis). International Journal of Language Education and Culture Review, 1(2): 11 – 26.

Harmer, Jeremy. 1998. How to Teach English: An introduction to the Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Person Education.

Joe-Kinanee, Josephine Nkem B. 2017. Measurement of The Effectiveness of Flanders Interactive Analysis Categories (FIAC). International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 10(2):1–16.

Katili, A. A., Kartin L., Syarifuddin, A., & Hassnuddin F. (2021). Language Function in The Classroom: A Classroom Discourse Analysis. International Journal of Education and Social Science Research. 4(2).

Larasaty, Gina, & Yutinih. (2018). The Role of Classroom Interaction in Students’ Speaking Skill (A case Study Research in Senior Hhigh School). English Journal of Indragiri (EJI), 2(2): 1-13.

Mardiyana, Fitri, et al. (2018) Verbal Interaction in English Classroom Using Flanders Analysis Categories System (FIACS). Undergraduate Thesis, Universitas Negeri Medan. Retrieved from

Martina, Feni, Ira R. U., Syamsul R. (2021). An Analysis of Teacher Talk using Flanders Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC). International Journal of Inovation and Education Research (IJIIER), 1(1): 31-52.

Ngatmini. (2019). Model Wacana Interaksi Belajar Mengajar Mata Kuliah Berbicara di Perguruan Tinggi Umum dan Perguruan Tinggi Yayasan Islam. Dissertation. Universitas Negeri Semarang.

Nunan, D. (1998). Research Methods in Language Learning (7th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pourhaji, Mostafa & Michael Sadeghi. (2021). Teacher Talk Curbing Learner Participation in L2 Classroom Discourse. Springer: English Teaching and Learning, p. 1-18.

Rashidi, Nasser & Mahshid Rafieerad. (2010). Analyzing Patterns of Classroom Interaction in EFL Classrooms in Iran. The Journal of Asia TEFL. 7(4): 93-120.

Rido, Akhyar & Sari, Fatimah M. (2018). Characteristics of Classroom Interaction of English Language Teachers in Indonesia and Malaysia. International Journal of Language Education, 2(1): 40-50.

Smittle, Patricia. (2003). Principles for effective teaching in developmental education. Journal of Developmental Education; Spring 2003; 26(3).

Vivekmetakorn, C.K. & Meentra Thamma. (2015). Teacher Questioning from a Discourse Perspective. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network (LEARN) Journal, 8(1).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.