Factors Analysis Related to Handwashing Behavior Among the Students to Prevent Third Wave Pandemic

Esthi Kusdarini, Agus Budianto


This study aims to developed a habit model of handwashing to identify the factors and variables influencing handwashing habits. Testing model of a set of empirical data collected from 160 randomly selected students of Mining Engineering students. Furthermore, the data was collected, sorted, and analyzed statistically using descriptive statistics and correlation tests. Data representation, validation, and data correlation were conducted in MS Excel and SPSS 20. Model testing showed no relation between knowledge and washing hand habit; attitude was strongly related with handwashing attitude (Pearson correlation value of 0.688), and clean water facilities had a moderate relationship with handwashing attitude (Pearson correlation value of 0.582). Testing of determination coefficient from the model showed that knowledge, attitudes, and clean water facilities contributed 56.2% from all variables relating to hand wash habit. Variable findings that influenced hand wash habits could be a suggestion for the decision-maker to arrange the policy of handwashing development in the campus to prevent the covid-19 virus.


Correlation test; Handwashing; Knowledge; Clean water; Attitude

Full Text:



Agarwal, A., Ranjan, P., Rohilla, P., Saikaustubh, Y., Sahu, A., Dwivedi, S. N., … Kumar, A. (2021). Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess preventive practices against COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Preventive Medicine Reports, 22. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101339

Djordjevic, B., Mane, A. S., & Krmac, E. (2021). Analysis of dependency and importance of key indicators for railway sustainability monitoring: A new integrated approach with DEA and Pearson correlation. Research in Transportation Business & Management. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rtbm.2021.100650

Eryanti, Danim, S., Yulistio, D., & Chandra, D. E. (2021). The Influence of the School Literacy Movement, Reading Interest, and Reading Materials on Reading Comprehension Skill of Class XI Students of MAN Bengkulu City Academic Year 2020/2021. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 8(9), 432–441. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v8i9.3002

Fakhira, A. D., Pawitra, A. S., Diyanah, K. C., Wikurendra, E. A., Nagy, I., & Abdeljawad, N. S. M. (2021). AWARENESS OF DOING 3M (WEARING MASK, PHYSICAL DISTANCING, WASHING HANDS) DURING PANDEMIC ERA IN RURAL AND URBAN FAMILIES. Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan, 13(2), 94–101. https://doi.org/10.20473/jkl.v13i2.2021.94-101

Farooq, A., Laato, S., Islam, A. K. M. N., & Isoaho, J. (2021). Understanding the impact of information sources on COVID-19 related preventive measures in Finland. Technology in Society, 65. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101573

Gautam, V., S, D., Rustagi, N., Mittal, A., Patel, M., Shafi, S., … Raghav, P. (2021). Health literacy, preventive COVID 19 behaviour and adherence to chronic disease treatment during lockdown among patients registered at primary health facility in urban Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 15, 205–211. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.12.023

Giarno. (2021). Clustering Pandemic COVID-19 and Relationship to Temperature and Relative Humidity Among the Tropic and Subtropic Region. WALAILAK JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 18(17). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.9750

Hair, J. ., Anderson, R. ., Tatham, R. ., & Black, W. . (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (Fifth edit). New Jersy: Prentice Hall Inc.

Hossain, M. B., Alam, M. Z., Islam, M. S., Sultan, S., Faysal, M. M., Rima, S., … Shoma, S. S. (2020). Do knowledge and attitudes matter for preventive behavioral practices toward the COVID-19? A cross-sectional online survey among the adult population in Bangladesh. Heliyon, 6.

Hunt, C. O., & Morawska, Z. (2020). Are your hands clean? Pollen retention on the human hand after washing. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 280. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2020.104278

Kassas, B., & Nayga Jr, R. M. (2021). Promoting higher social distancing and stay-at-home decisions during COVID-19: The underlying conflict between public health and the economy. Safety Science, 140. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105300

KHAIRULBAHRI, M. (2021). Understanding the First and the Second Waves of the COVID-19 in Germany: Is our Social Behavior Enough to Protect us from the Pandemic? Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 18(15). https://doi.org/DOI: https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.22203

KUMAR, S. L. okesh, L, V. R. S. M., & ANBARASI, J. (2021). Predictive Analytics of COVID-19 Pandemic: Statistical Modelling Perspective. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 18(16). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.15583

KUSDARINI, E., HAKIM, L., YANUWIADI, B., & SUYADI, S. (2021). Study in the Development of Fixed Bed Filter Adoption of Public Health of Lake Water Users. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 18(8), 1–10. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.9131

Kusdarini, E., Malik, A., Utamakno, L., & Budianto, A. (2021). Sebaran cemaran Hg di kawasan pertambangan emas rakyat menggunakan metode inverse distance weight. Dinamika Lingkungan Indonesia, 8(2), 100–106.

Kusdarini, E., Purwaningsih, D. Y., & Budianto, A. (2018). Adsorption of Pb2+ Ion in Water Well with Amberlite Ir 120 Na Resin. Pollution Research, 37(4), 307–312.

Kusdarini, E., Suyadi, S., Yanuwiyadi, B., & Hakim, L. (2019a). Model of People’s Perception of Water Treatment Equipment: Preliminary Study of the Lake Water Treatment Plan in Gresik Dry Land Area, Indonesia. In G. T. I. Tawakkal, W. Wike, N. Harahab, A. Utaminingsih, & A. S. Leksono (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International Interdisciplinary Studies Seminar (pp. 1–9). https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.23-10-2019.2293013

Kusdarini, E., Suyadi, S., Yanuwiyadi, B., & Hakim, L. (2019b). The Supply of Clean Water and The Problems in Benjeng Sub-District , Gresik, Indonesia. In G. T. I. Tawakkal, W. Wike, N. Harahab, A. Utaminingsih, & A. S. Leksono (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International Interdisciplinary Studies Seminar (pp. 1–7). https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.23-10-2019.2293014

Kusdarini, E., Yanuwiadi, B., Hakim, L., & Suyadi, S. (2020). Adoption Model of Water Filter by The Society of Lake Water Users in Dry Land Area, Gresik, East Java, Indonesia. International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology, 10(5), 2089–2096.

Linke, A. C., Mash, L. E., Fong, C. H., Kinnear, M. K., Kohli, J. S., Wilkinson, M., … Muller, R. A. (2020). Dynamic time warping outperforms Pearson correlation in detecting atypical functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorders. NeuroImage, 223. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117383

Liu, P. L. (2021). COVID-19 information on social media and preventive behaviors: Managing the pandemic through personal responsibility. Social Science & Medicine, 277, 1–8. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.113928

Miao, L., Im, J., Fu, X., Kim, H., & Zhang, Y. E. (2021). Proximal and distal post-COVID travel behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, 88. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2021.103159

Min, C., Shen, F., Yu, W., & Chu, Y. (2020). The relationship between government trust and preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in China: Exploring the roles of knowledge and negative emotion Author. Preventive Medicine, 141.

Munawaroh, S., Sarkadi, & Makmuri. (2021). Implementation of Online Learning During the Covid 19 Pandemic in Mathematics with a Scientific Approach in SD Daarul Qur’an Kalibata City. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 8(8), 297–306. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v8i8.2946

Notoatmodjo, S. (2003). Pendidikan dan Perilaku Kesehatan. Rineka Cipta.

Notoatmodjo, S. (2010). Ilmu perilaku kesehatan. Rineka Cipta.

PUTERA, M. L. S., WAHYUNITA, L., & YUSUP, F. (2021). Spatial Modelling of Covid-19 Confirmed Cases in Kalimantan, Indonesia: How Neighborhood Matters? Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, 18(15). https://doi.org/DOI: https://doi.org/10.48048/wjst.2021.22120

Qureshi, W. A., Saud, M., & Mahmood, Q. K. (2020). Dataset on the fear, preventive behaviour and anxiety disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Data in Brief, 33. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106579

Ryan, T. (2013). Sample Size Determination and Power. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

S.Bashirian, E.Jenabi, S.Khazaei, M.Barati, A.Karimi-Shahanjarini, S.Zareian, … B.Moeini. (2020). Factors associated with preventive behaviours of COVID-19 among hospital staff in Iran in 2020: an application of the Protection Motivation Theory. Journal of Hospital Infection, 105(3), 430–433. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.035

Sari, P. N., Alfian, A. R., & Firdani, F. (2021). CORRELATION OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE WITH INCREASING OF COVID19 CASES IN A TROPICAL CITY. Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan, 13(3), 186–192. https://doi.org/10.20473/jkl.v13i3.2021.186-192

Shukla, S., Mishra, S. K., & Rai, H. (2021). Optimistic bias, risky behavior, and social norms among Indian college students during COVID-19. Personality and Individual Differences, 183. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111076

Sujarweni, V. W. (2015). SPSS Untuk Penelitian (Florent, ed.). Yogyakarta: Pustaka Baru Press.

Sunhee Park PhD, R., & Sumi Oh PhD, R. (2021). Factors associated with preventive behaviors for COVID-19 among adolescents in South Korea Author. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2021.07.006

Yalcinkaya, A., Balay, I. G., & Senoglu, B. (2021). A new approach using the genetic algorithm for parameter estimation in multiple linear regression with long-tailed symmetric distributed error terms: An application to the Covid-19 data. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 216.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v8i11.3064


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.