Inquiring Language Awareness of TEFL Master Students in Advanced Grammar Exams

Muhammad Dhika Arif Rizqan, Endang Fauziati, Sri Samiati Tarjana


The Knowledge-based Era demands scholars to be experts in their fields. Language Awareness (LA) is L2 explicit knowledge about language. Its presence as one of the expertise qualifications for foreign language learners is inevitable. This study aims to describe the extent of LA within the qualitative case study approach. Eight TEFL master students were chosen as the subjects. The researchers collected the data from exams and interviews. The general findings showed that the students have ‘adequate’ LA. In a closer look, their analyzed knowledge was better than metalinguistic knowledge; it was a relatively normal condition since analyzed knowledge requires simpler cognitive process rather than metalinguistic knowledge. Additionally, it seemed that the multiple choices in the exams enlighten the cognitive process within analyzed knowledge. However, their metalinguistic knowledge had a problem with grammatical terminologies. In sum, both types of knowledge are vital but metalinguistic knowledge deserves more priority to be improved.


Explicit Knowledge; Metalanguage; Terminology; Grammar Difficulty

Full Text:



ALA. (2016). Association for Language Awareness Retrieved June, 2016, from http://www.

Berry, R. (2008). Talking Terms: Choosing and Using Terminology for EFL classroom. English Language Teaching, 1(1): 19-24.

Berry, R. (2010). Terminology in English Language Teaching: nature and use (Vol. 93). Bern: Peter Lang.

Bolitho, R., Carter, R., Hughes, R., Ivanic, R., Masuhara, H., & Tomlinson, B. (2003). Ten Questions About Language Awareness. ELT Journal, 57(3).

Carter, R. (2003). Language Awareness. ELT Journal, 57(1): 64-65.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approach (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

DeKeyser, R. (2003). Implicit and Explicit Learning. In C. J. Doughty & M. H. Long (Eds.). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (p. 313-348). Oxford: Blackwell.

Ellis, R. (2004). The Definition and Measurement of L2 Explicit Knowledge. Language Learning, 54(2): 227-275.

Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring Implicit and Explicit Knowledge of a Second Language: A Psychometric Study. SSLA, 27: 141-172.

Ellis, R. (2006). Modelling Learning Difficulty and Second Language Proficiency: The Differential Contributions of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge. Applied Linguistic, 27(3): 431-463.

Graus, J., & Coppen, P.-A. (2015). Defining Grammatical Difficulty: a Student Teacher Perpective. Language Awareness, 24(2): 101-122.

Gutierrez, X. (2016). Analyzed Knowledge, Metalanguage, and Second Language Proficiency. System, 60: 42-54.

Han, Y., & Ellis, R. (1998). Implicit knowledge, explicit knowledge and general language proficiency. Language Teaching Research, 2(1): 1-23.

Mirzaei, A., Rahimi, M., & Shakerian, Z. (2011). Differential Accessibility of Implicit and Explicit Grammatical Knowledge to EFL Learners' Language Proficiency. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(2): 111-143.

Tsang, W. L. (2011). English Metalanguage Awareness Among Primary School Teacher in Hong Kong. Journal of Language Studies, 11(1): 1-16.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.