Does Technology Change Families? A Tri -Angulation Discussion on the Relation of Family & Technology

Forough Shojanoori, Samaneh Sadat Sadidpour


Families have moved, or have been moved, from the streets into their homes or more specifically, into their bedrooms. Digital technology – computer games, mobiles & the internet and email are referred to as new technology when they are discussed in relation to Health & structure of families and Many parents, clinicians, researchers, and policy makers are concerned that electronic tools, especially those featuring violent content, may be harmful to individuals especially youths. This article is a documentary study, combination of multiple focus is chosen. In this article, Internet, Mobile and computer games. This article looks into the role of the technology on families. Specifically, it examines how the mediated space that this technology creates matters. Technological change often creates ungrounded fears but also overinflated hopes. In order to minimize risks and to seize chances, systematic, empirical, and ideally experimental research is crucial in all over the world. Major changes in family structure and environments might potentially severely disrupt family functioning, thus diminishing a family’s ability to cope with stress, so by the advent of a technology.


Computer Game; Family; Internet; Mobile; Technology

Full Text:



Abner, G. H., & Lahm, E. A. (2002). Implementation of assistive technology with students who are visually impaired: Teachers’ readiness. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 96(2), 98-105.

Alexandersson, U., & Swärd, A. K. (2015). Estetiska lärprocesser. Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik. Tematiska arbetssätt och digitala verktyg, 1-9.

Alper, s. & raharinirina, s. (2006). ‘Assistive Technology for Individuals with Disabilities: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature’, Journal of Special Education Technology 21(2): 47–64.

Anderson, B., Fagan, P., Woodnutt, T., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2012). Facebook psychology: Popular questions answered by research. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, 23-37.

Anderson, C. A. (2004). An update on the effects of playing video games. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 113-122.

Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., Flanagan, M., Benjamin, A. J., Eubanks, J., & Valentine, J. C. (2004). Violent video games: Specific effects of violent content on aggressive thoughts and behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 199-249.

Armstrong EA, England P and Fogarty A. (2012). Accounting for women’s orgasm and sexual enjoyment in college hookups and relationships. American Sociological Review 77: 435–462.

Barab, S., Thomas, M., Dodge, T., Carteaux, R., & Tuzun, H. (2005). Making learning fun: Quest Atlantis, A game without guns. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(1),86-107.

Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Thompson, D., & Baranowski, J. (2008). Playing for real. Video games and stories for health-related behavior change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine,34(1),74-82.

Barker,V.,&Ota,H.(2011).Mixi diary versus Facebook photos: Social networking site use among Japanese and Caucasian American females. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 40,39-63.

Beentjes, J. W. J., Koolstra, C. M., Marseille, N., & van der Voort, T. H. A. (2001). Children’s use of different media: For how long and why? In S. M. Livingstone & M. Bovill (Eds.), Children and their changing media environment: A European comparative study (pp. 85- 112). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Between computer-game preference, gender, and mental-rotation ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(3), 609–619.

Boase J, Wellman B. Personal relationships: On and off the Internet. In: Vangelisti AL, Perlman D, editors. The Cambridge handbook of personal relationships. Cambridge University Press; New York, NY: 2006: 28-38.

Boguslaw, R. (1965). The new utopian: A study of system design and social change. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,226.

Bonanno, P., & Kommers, P.A. (2005). Gender differences and styles in the use of digital games. Educational Psychology, 25(1), 13–41.

Bonanno, P., & Kommers, P.A.M. (2008). Exploring the influence of gender and gaming competence on attitudes towards using instructional games. British Journal of Educational Technology,39(1),97–109.

Boyd, D., Hargittai, E., Schultze, J., & Palfrey, J. (2011). Why parents help their children lie to Facebook about age: Unintended consequences of the “Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act.” First Monday, 16(11). Available from http://

Brauer JR, De Coster S. Social Relationships and Delinquency: Revisiting Parent and Peer Influence During Adolescence. Youth & Society. 2015;47(3):374-394.

Bremer, J.,&Rauch, P. K. (1998). Children and computers: Risks and benefits. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(5), 559-560.

Brent, E., & Slusarz, P. (2003). “Feeling the beat”: Intelligent coding advice from meta-knowledge in qualitative research. Social Science Computer Review, 21, 281-303.

Brotherson, M.J, Oakland, M.J, Secrist-Mertz, C. Litchfield, R., & Larson, K. (1995). Quality of life issues and families who make the decision to use a feeding tube for their child. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 20, 202-212

Buckingham, D. & Scanlon M. (2003). Education, Entertainment, and Learning in the Home. Buckingham: Open University Press, p202

Buckley,P.,&Casson,M.(1979).The Future of the Multinational Enterprise.New York: Holmes and Meier.

Burris, B. (1998). Computerization of the workplace. Annual Reviewof Sociology, 24, 141-157.

Cahill, S., Macijauskiene, J., Nygård, A. M., Faulkner, J. P., & Hagen, I. (2007). Technology in dementia care. Technology and Disability, 19(2-3), 55-60.

Carlson Jon, Alfred C. N. Chan, Jimson W. T. Chan, Yoshiya Kurato, Cecelia Soong and Julia Yang(1999). The Influence of Technology on Families: An Asian Perspective, Journal of Women and Social Work,Volume 23 Number 3: 270-280

Carvalho, J., Francisco, R., & Relvas, A. P. (2015). Family functioning and information and communication technologies: How do they relate? A literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 99-108.

Cherney, I.D., & London, K. (2006). Gender-linked differences in the toys, television shows, computer games, and outdoor activities of 5- to 13-yearold children. Sex Roles, 54(9), 717–726

Christakis, D. A., & Zimmerman, F. J. (2006). Media as a public health issue. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 445-446.

Claisse, G., and F. Rowe. (1993). Domestic telephone habits and daily mobility. Transportation Research 27:277-90.

Collins HM. (1981). Stages in the empirical program of relativism. Social Studies of Science 11(1): 3–10.

Collins HM. (1983). The sociology of scientific knowledge: Studies of contemporary science. Annual Review of Sociology 9: 265–285.

Coutts, P., K. Alport, R. Coutts, and D. Morrell. (2003). Beyond the wireless internet hype—Re-engaging the user. Paper presented at Communications Research Forum, 1–2 October,Canberra,Australia. (accessed July 29, 2009).

Carp, E. W. (2017). The Sentimentalization of Adoption: A Critical Note on Viviana Zelizer's Pricing the Priceless Child. Adoption & Culture, 5, 7-28.

De Massis, A., Sharma, P. A., Chua, J. H., & Chrisman, J. J. (2012). Family business studies: An annotated bibliography. Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar,345.

Delicado, A. (2021). Introduction: How the Sociology of Science and Technology Addresses Science and Society Relations. In Communicating Science and Technology in Society (pp. 1-14). Springer, Cham

Dempsey, J. V., Lucassen, B., Gilley,W.,&Rasmussen, K. (1993-1994). Since Malone’s theory on intrinsically motivating instruction: What’s the score in the gaming literature? Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 22(2), 173-183.

Denizet-Lewis B. (2004). Friends, friends with benefits and the benefits of the local mall. New York Times, 30 May

Denzin NK and Lincoln YS. (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dunning, J. H. (1988). The eclectic paradigm of international production: A restatement and some possible extensions. Journal of International Business Studies, 191, 1-32.

Ellison, N., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends”: Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1143–1168.

Facebook. (2012). Statistics of Facebook. Palo Alto, CA: Facebook. Retrieved from aspx?NewsAreaId=22

Falk, T., and R. Abler. (1980). Intercommunications, distance, and geographical theory. Geografiska Annaler 62:59-67.

Fortunati L. (2002). Italy: Stereotypes, true and false. In: Katz JE and Aakhus M (eds) Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance.New York:Cambridge University Press,42–62.

Fortunati, L., and A. M. Manganelli. (2002). Young people and the mobile telephone. Revista de Estudio de Juventud 52:59-78.

Freeman, M. (1997). Electronic media and how kids (don’t) think. Education Digest, 63(3), 22-27.

Gallo, M. A., & Pont, C. G. (1996). Important factors in family business internationalization. Family Business Review, 9(1), 45-60.

Garfinkel H, Lynch M and Livingston E. (1981). The work of a discovering science construed with materials from the optically discovered pulsar. Philosophy of Social Science 11(2): 131–158.

Gee, J.P. (2003). What Video Games Have to Teach us about Learning and Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan,492.

Geroski, P., Machin, S., & Van Reenen, J. (1993). The profitability of innovating firms. The RAND Journal of Economics, 198-211

Geser, H. (2002). Sociology of the mobile phone. Unpublished manuscript, University of Zurich, Switzerland.,P.265.

Gilbert N and Mulkay M. (1984). Opening Pandora’s Box. A Sociological Analysis of Scientists’ Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,320.

Grant, D., and S. Kiesler.(2002). Blurring the boundaries: Cell phones, mobility, and the line between work and personal life. In Wireless world: Social and interactional aspects of the mobile age, ed. B. Brown, N. Green, and R. Harper. London: Springer- Verlag, 121-31

Grello CM, Welsh DP, Harper MS and Dickson JW. (2003). Dating and sexual relationship trajectories and adolescent functioning. Adolescent and Family Health 3: 103–112.

Groves, M. M., & Zemel, P. C. (2000). Instructional technology adoption in higher education: An action research case study. International Journal of Instructional Media, 27, 57-65.

Harkin, James. (2003). Life lines. New Statesman, September 15, 17: 774, R3-R5.

Hasan, B. (2003). The influence of specific computer experiences on computer self-efficacy beliefs. Computers in Human Behavior, 19, 443-450.

Heeter, C., Egidio, R., Mishra, P., Winn, B., & Winn, J. (2009). Alien Games Do Girls Prefer Games Designed by Girls? Games and Culture, 4(1), 74–100.

Hill, J. E., Miller, B. C., Weiner, S. P., & Colihan, J. (1998). Influence of the virtual office on aspects of work and work/life balance. Personnel Psychology, 51, 667-683.

Holloway, S.L. & Valentine G. (2000). Children’s Geographies: Playing, Living, Learning. London: Routledge,41.

Holloway, S.L. and G. Valentine (2002) Cyberkids: Children in the Information Age. London: Routledge,153.

Hughes Jr, R., & Hans, J. D. (2001). Computers, the Internet, and families: A review of the role new technology plays in family life. Journal of Family Issues, 22(6), 776-790.

Hymer, S. (1976). The International Operations of National Firms: A Study of Direct Foreign Investment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,P.887

James, D.W., Jurich, S.,&Estes, S. (2001). Raising minority academic achievement: A compendium of education programs and practices.Washington, DC: AmericanYouth Policy Forum

Kafai, Y. B. (2018). Constructionist visions: Hard fun with serious games. International Journal of Child-Computer Interaction, 18, 19-21.

Karakus, T., Inal, Y., & Cagiltay, K. (2008). A descriptive study of Turkish high school students’ game-playing characteristics and their considerations concerning the effects of games. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6),2520–2529.

Kardos, P., Unoka, Z., Pléh, C., & Soltész, P. (2018). Your mobile phone indeed means your social network: Priming mobile phone activates relationship related concepts. Computers in Human Behavior, 88, 84-88.

Katz, J. E. (1996). The social consequences of wireless communications. In The emerging world of wireless communications, 91-199. Annual Review of the Institute for Information Studies. Nashville, TN: Institute for Information Studies.

Katz, J. E. (1998). The social side of information networking. Society 35:402

Knorr-Cetina K. (2013). The Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructivist and Contextual Nature of Science. Oxford: Pergamon,204.

Kraut RE, Patterson M, Lundmark V et al. (1998) Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist 53: 1017– 1031.

Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukhopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological wellbeing. American Psychologist, 53, 1017-1031.

Kraut, R., Scherlis,W., Mukhopadhyay, T., Manning, J.,&Kiesler, S. (1996). The HomeNet field trial of residential Internet services. Communications of the ACM, 39, 55-63.

Kress, G.R. (2003). Literacy in the New Media Age. London: Routledge,196.

Latour B & Woolgar S. (2013). Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. London: SAGE,293.

Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, A. R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008). Teens, video games, and civics (Report No. 202-415-4500). Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project. Lerner, R. M., Dowling, E. M., & Anderson.

Lewis, J., & West, A. (2009). “Friending”: London-based undergraduates’ experience of Facebook. New Media & Society, 11, 1209–1229.

Licoppe C. (2004). Connected presence: The emergence of a new repertoire for managing social relationships in a changing communication technoscape. Society and Space 22(1): 135–156.

Lieberman, D. (2001). Management of chronic pediatric diseases with itneractive health games: Theory and research findings. Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, 24(1), 26–38.

Ling R & Ytrri B. (2002). Hyper-coordination via mobile phones in Norway. In: Katz JE and Aakhus M (eds) Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 139–169.

Ling R. (2001). “We release them little by little”: maturation and gender identity as seen in the use of mobile telephony. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 5: 123–136.

Ling, R., Bertel, T. F., & Sundsoy, P. R. (2012). The socio-demographics of texting:An analysis of traffic data. New Media & Society, 14, 281-298.

Livingstone, S.M. (2002). Young People and New Media: Childhood and the Changing Media Environment. London: Sage,278

Lopez, M. H., & Livingston, G. (2010). How young Latinos communicate with friends in the digital age. Retrieved from

Luborsky, M. R. (1993). Sociocultural factors shaping technology usage. Fulfilling the promise.Technology and Disability, 2(1) 71-78.

Lynch M. (1985). Art and Artefacts in Laboratory Science: A Study of Shop Work and Shop Talk in a Research Laboratory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul,317.

Lyons, G., & Urry, J. (2005). Travel time use in the information age. Transportation Research Part A, 39, 257-276.

Maisel, R., & Persell, C. H. (1995). How sampling works. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Manning WD, Giordano PC and Longmore MA. (2006). Hooking up: The relationship contexts of ‘non-relationship’ sex. Journal of Adolescent Research 21: 459–483.

Marsh J (2004) The techno-literacy practices of young children. Journal of Early Childhood Research 2(1): 55–66.

Marshall, M. (1995). Technology is the shape of the future. Journal of Dementia Care, 3, 12-14.

Metsola, J., Leppäaho, T., Paavilainen-Mäntymäki, E., & Plakoyiannaki, E. (2020). Process in family business internationalisation: The state of the art and ways forward. International Business Review, 29(2), 101665.

Mollenkopf H. (Ed.), Elderly people in industrialised societies. Social integration in old age by or despite technology? (pp. 207–215). Berlin, Germany: Edition Sigma, Rainer Bohn Verlag

Moore, E. G., Mazvancheryl, S. K.,&Rego, L. L. (1996). The bolo game: Exploration of a high-tech virtual community. Advances in Consumer Research, 23, 167-171.

Moores, S. (2004). The doubling of place: Electronic media, time-space arrangements and social relationships. In N. Couldry & A.McCarthy (Eds.),Media space: Place, scale, and culture in a media age. London: Routledge (pp. 21-36).

Morgan, N. A., Feng, H., & Whitler, K. A. (2018). Marketing capabilities in international marketing. Journal of International Marketing, 26(1), 61-95.Motte, Warren (1995): Playtexts. Ludics in Contemporary Literature. Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press.P.260

Mull, c. a. & sitlington, p. l. (2003). ‘The Role of Technology in the Transition to Postsecondary Education of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Review of the Literature’, Journal of Special Education 37(1): 26–32.

Muscanell, N. L., & Guadagno, R. E. (2012). Make new friends or keep the old: Gender and personality differences in social networking use. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 107-112.

Nilles, J. M. (1991). Telecommuting and urban sprawl: Mitigator or inciter. Transportation 18:411-32.

Nwokah, N. G., & Briggs, J. T. (2017). Internal marketing and marketing effectiveness of hotel industry in Rivers state. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 5(04), 238.

Ogletree, S.M., & Drake, R. (2007). College students’ video game participation and perceptions: Gender differences and implications. Sex Roles, 56(7), 537–542.

Okolo, c. m. & bouck, e. c. (2007). ‘Research About Assistive Technology: 2000–2006. What Have We Learned?’, Journal of Special Education Technology 22(3): 19–34.

Orcutt, J. D., & Anderson, R. E. (1974). Human-computer relationships: Interaction and attitudes. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 6, 219-222.

Oskman, V., & P. Rutianen. (2002). I’ve got my whole life in my hand. Revista de Estudios de Juventud 52:25-32.

Oviatt, B., & Mc. Dougall, P. (1994). Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25, 45-64.

Paragas, F. (2009). Public relations in the Philippines: Past promise and future prospects. Media Asia, 36(2), 87-95.

Parette, H. P., Brotherson, M. J., Hourcade, J. J., & Bradley, R. H. (1996). Family-centered assistive technology assessment. Intervention in School and Clinic, 32(2), 104-112.

Pierce, T. (2009). Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1367-1372.

Pinch T.J. & Collins H. (1979). Is anti-science not-science? The case of parapsychology. In: Nowotny H and Rose H (eds) Counter Movements in the Sciences: Sociology of the Sciences. Dordrecht: Reidel, 221–250

Pinch T.J. (1977). What does a proof do if it does not prove? A study of the social conditions and metaphysical divisions leading to David Bohm and John von Neumann failing to communicate in quantum mechanics. In: Mendelsohn E, Weingart P and Whitley RD (eds) The Social Production of Scientific Knowledge: Sociology of the Sciences. Dordrecht: Reidel, 171–215.

Piper, A. M., O’Brien, E., Morris, M., & Winograd, T. (2006). SIDES: A cooperative tabletop computer game for social skills development. In Proceeding from CSCW ’06: Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on computer supported cooperative work. New York, NY: ACM,P.10.

Plomp, T., Anderson, R. E., Law, N., & Quale, A. (Eds.). (2003). Cross-national policies and practices on information and communication technology in education. Greenwich, CT: Information Age, 749

Prensky, M. (2001) Digital Game-Based Learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Puro, J. P. (2002) Finland: A mobile culture. In J. Katz & M. Aakhus (Eds.), Perpetual contact: Mobile communication, private talk, public performance (pp. 19-29). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Quaiser-Pohl, C., Geiser, C. Christian, & Lehmann, W. (2006). The relationship

Rheingold, H. (2007). Smart mobs: The next social revolution. Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 288

Rusby, J. C., Light, J. M., Crowley, R., & Westling, E. (2018). Influence of parent–youth relationship, parental monitoring, and parent substance use on adolescent substance use onset. Journal of family psychology, 32(3), 310.

Rusli, E. (2012). Facebook files for an I.P.O. New York Times. Retrieved from files-for-an-i-p-o/?hp

Salomon, I. (1985). Telecommunication and travel: Substitution or modified mobility? Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 19:219-35.

Sanchez, J., & Flores, H. (2008). Virtual mobile science learning for blind people. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(3), 356–359.

Sengupta, S. (2012, June 26). Big brother? No, it’s parents who hover over children online. The New York Times, pp. A1, B4.

Sharma, P., Chrisman, J. J., & Gersick, K. E. (2012). 25 years of family business review: Reflections on the past and perspectives for the future. Family Business Review, 25, 5-15.

Sherry, J. L. (2001). The effects of violent video games on aggression: A meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 27, 409-431.

Smith, M. (2002). Tools for navigating large social cyberspaces. Communications of the ACM, 45, 51-54.

Söderström, S. (2011). ‘Staying Safe while on the Move: Exploring Differences in Disabled and Non-disabled Young People’s Perceptions of the Mobile Phone’s Significance in Daily Life’, Young, 19(1): 91–109.

Sproull, L. S. (2000). Computers in U.S. households since 1977. In A. D. Chandler, Jr. & J.W. Cortada (Eds.),A nation transformed by information (pp. 257-280). London: Oxford University Press.

Squire, K. (2006). From content to context:Videogames as designed experience. Educational Researcher, 35(8), 19-29

Srivastava, L. (2005). Mobile phones and the evolution of social behavior. Behaviour & Information Technology, 24, 111–129.

Stephen C, McPake J, Plowman L, et al. (2008). Learning from the children: exploring preschool children’s encounters with ICT at home. Journal of Early Childhood Research 6(2): 99–117

Svensson R (2003). Gender differences in adolescent drug use: The impact of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Youth and Society 34: 300–329.

Thomas, R., Cahill, J., & Santilli, L. (1997). Using an interactive computer game to increase skill and self-effiacy regarding safer sex negotiation: Field test results. Health Education & Behavior, 24(1),71–86.

Thulin, E. & Vilhelmson, B. (2007). ‘Mobiles Everywhere: Youth, the Mobile Phone, and Changes in Everyday Practice’, Young, 15(3): 235–53.

Tomita H. (2005). Keitai and the intimate stranger. In: Ito M, Okabe D and Matsuda M (eds) Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press

Tripp, L. (2011). “The computer is not for you to be looking around, it is for schoolwork”:Challenges for digital inclusion as Latino immigrant families negotiatechildren’s access to the internet. New Media & Society, 13, 552-567.

Uy-Tioco, C. (2007). Overseas Filipino workers and text messaging: Reinventing transnational mothering. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 21, 2, 253-265.

Valkenburg PM and Peter J. (2011). Adolescents’ online communication: An integrative model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. Journal of Adolescent Health 48: 121–127.

Valkenburg PM and Peter J.. (2007). Preadolescents’ and adolescents’ online communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology 43: 267–277.

Walsh, Shari P., White, Katherine M., Cox, Stephen and McD Young, Ross. (2011). ‘Keeping in Constant Touch: The Predictors of Young Australians’ Mobile Phone Involvement’, Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1): 333–42.

Walther, J. B., & Burgoon, J. K. (1992). Relational communication in computer-mediated interaction. Human Communication Research, 19, 50-88.

Warner, D. E., & Raiter, M. (2005). Social context in Massively-Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs): Ethical questions in shared space. International Review of Information Ethics, 4, 46-52.

Weikle, b. & hadadian, a. (2003). ‘Can Assistive Technology Help Us to Not Leave Any Children Behind? Preventing School Failure’, Education Research Complete Database 47(4): 181–6.

Weiss, P. L., Bilalik, P., & Kizony, R. (2003). Virtual reality provides leisure time opportunities for young adults with physical and intellectual disabilities. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(3), 335–342

Wellman, B. (2002). Designing the Internet for a networked society. Communications of the ACM, 45, 91-96.

Wellman, B., Haase, A. Q., Witte, J., & Hampton, K. (2001). Does the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement social capital? American Behavioral Scientist, 45, 436-455.

Wilson, R. E., Gosling, S. D., & Graham, L. T. (2012). A review of Facebook researchin the social sciences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 203-220.

Witte, J. (2004). The case for multi-method research: Large sample design and the study of life online. In P. N. Howard&S. Jones (Eds.), Society online: The Internet in context (pp. xv-xxxiv). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Yelton, A. (2012). Bridging the digital divide with mobile services. Library Technology Report,48(1),5-8.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU) ISSN 2364-5369
Copyright © 2014-2018 IJMMU. All rights reserved.